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There is still controversy about optimal dietary iodine intake as the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) policy enforcement in China. A modified iodine balance study was thus conducted to explore the suitable iodine intake in Chinese adult males using the iodine overflow hypothesis. In this study, 38 apparently healthy males (19.1±0.6 years) were recruited and provided with designed diets. After the 14-days iodine depletion, daily iodine intake gradually increased in the 30-days iodine supplementation, consisting of 6 stages and each of 5-days. All foods and excreta (urine, faeces) were collected to examine daily iodine intake, iodine excretion and the changes of iodine increment in relation to those values at stage 1. The dose-response associations of iodine intake increment with excretion increment were fitted by the mixed effects models (MEMs), as well as with retention increment. Daily iodine intake and excretion were 16.3 and 54.3 μg/day at stage 1, and iodine intake increment increased from 11.2 μg/day at stage 2 to 118.0 μg/day at stage 6, whilst excretion increment elevated from 21.5 to 95.0 μg/day. A zero iodine balance was dynamically achieved as 48.0 μg/day of iodine intake. The estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended nutrient intake (RNI) were severally 48.0 and 67.2 μg/day, which could be corresponded to a daily iodine intake of 0.74 and 1.04 μg/kg/day. The results of our study indicate that roughly half of current iodine intakes recommendation could be enough in Chinese adult males, which would be beneficial for the revision of dietary reference intakes (DRIs).
Mental disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia, share a common neuropathy of disturbed large-scale coordinated brain maturation. However, high-interindividual heterogeneity hinders the identification of shared and distinct patterns of brain network abnormalities across mental disorders. This study aimed to identify shared and distinct patterns of altered structural covariance across mental disorders.
Subject-level structural covariance aberrance in patients with mental disorders was investigated using individualized differential structural covariance network. This method inferred structural covariance aberrance at the individual level by measuring the degree of structural covariance in patients deviating from matched healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted anatomical images of 513 participants (105, 98, 190 participants with depression, OCD and schizophrenia, respectively, and 130 age- and sex-matched HCs) were acquired and analyzed.
Patients with mental disorders exhibited notable heterogeneity in terms of altered edges, which were otherwise obscured by group-level analysis. The three disorders shared high difference variability in edges attached to the frontal network and the subcortical-cerebellum network, and they also exhibited disease-specific variability distributions. Despite notable variability, patients with the same disorder shared disease-specific groups of altered edges. Specifically, depression was characterized by altered edges attached to the subcortical-cerebellum network; OCD, by altered edges linking the subcortical-cerebellum and motor networks; and schizophrenia, by altered edges related to the frontal network.
These results have potential implications for understanding heterogeneity and facilitating personalized diagnosis and interventions for mental disorders.
Characteristic changes in the asymmetric nature of the human brain are associated with neurodevelopmental differences related to autism. In people with autism, these differences are thought to affect brain structure and function, although the structural and functional bases of these defects are yet to be fully characterized.
We applied a comprehensive meta-analysis to resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 370 people with autism and 498 non-autistic controls using seven datasets of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Project. We studied the meta-effect sizes based on standardized mean differences and standard deviations (s.d.) for lateralization of gray matter volume (GMV), fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF), and regional homogeneity (ReHo). We examined the functional correlates of atypical laterality through an indirect annotation approach followed by a direct correlation analysis with symptom scores.
In people with autism, 85, 51, and 51% of brain regions showed a significant diagnostic effect for lateralization in GMV, fALFF, and ReHo, respectively. Among these regions, 35.7% showed overlapping differences in lateralization in GMV, fALFF, and ReHo, particularly in regions with functional annotations for language, motor, and perceptual functions. These differences were associated with clinical measures of reciprocal social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. A meta-analysis based on s.d. showed that people with autism had lower variability in structural lateralization but higher variability in functional lateralization.
These findings highlight that atypical hemispheric lateralization is a consistent feature in autism across different sites and may be used as a neurobiological marker for autism.
A multiple-vehicles time-coordination guidance technique based on deep learning is suggested to address the cooperative guiding problem of hypersonic gliding vehicle entry phase. A dual-parameter bank angle profile is used in longitudinal guiding to meet the requirements of time coordination. A vehicle trajectory database is constructed along with a deep neural network (DNN) structure devised to fulfill the error criteria, and a trained network is used to replace the conventional prediction approach. Moreover, an extended Kalman filter is constructed to detect changes in aerodynamic parameters in real time, and the aerodynamic parameters are fed into a DNN. The lateral guiding employs a logic for reversing the sign of bank angle, which is based on the segmented heading angle error corridor. The final simulation results demonstrate that the built DNN is capable of addressing the cooperative guiding requirements. The algorithm is highly accurate in terms of guiding, has a fast response time, and does not need inter-munition communication, and it is capable of solving guidance orders that satisfy flight requirements even when aerodynamic parameter disruptions occur.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic behavioral and cognitive features. Abnormal brain dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) has been associated with the disorder. The full spectrum of ADHD-related variation of brain dynamics and its association with behavioral and cognitive features remain to be established.
We sought to identify patterns of brain dynamics linked to specific behavioral and cognitive dimensions using sparse canonical correlation analysis across a cohort of children with and without ADHD (122 children in total, 63 with ADHD). Then, using mediation analysis, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive deficits mediate the relationship between brain dynamics and ADHD-associated behaviors.
We identified four distinct patterns of dFC, each corresponding to a specific dimension of behavioral or cognitive function (r = 0.811–0.879). Specifically, the inattention/hyperactivity dimension was positively associated with dFC within the default mode network (DMN) and negatively associated with dFC between DMN and the sensorimotor network (SMN); the somatization dimension was positively associated with dFC within DMN and SMN; the inhibition and flexibility dimension and fluency and memory dimensions were both positively associated with dFC within DMN and between DMN and SMN, and negatively associated with dFC between DMN and the fronto-parietal network. Furthermore, we observed that cognitive functions of inhibition and flexibility mediated the relationship between brain dynamics and behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity.
These findings document the importance of distinct patterns of dynamic functional brain activity for different cardinal behavioral and cognitive features related to ADHD.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) in insects can encode various detoxification enzymes and catabolize heterologous substances, conferring tolerance to insecticides. This study describes the identification of a P450 gene (CYP6BQ8) from Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and investigation of its spatiotemporal expression profile and potential role in the detoxification of terpinen-4-ol, a component of plant essential oils. The developmental expression profile showed that TcCYP6BQ8 expression was relatively higher in early- and late-larval stages of T. castaneum compared with other developmental stages. Tissue expression profiles showed that TcCYP6BQ8 was mainly expressed in the head and integument of both larvae and adults. The expression profiling of TcCYP6BQ8 in developmental stages and tissues is closely related to the detoxification of heterologous substances. TcCYP6BQ8 expression was significantly induced after exposure to terpinen-4-ol, and RNA interference against TcCYP6BQ8 increased terpinen-4-ol-induced larval mortality from 47.78 to 66.67%. This indicates that TcCYP6BQ8 may be involved in T. castaneum's metabolism of terpinen-4-ol. Correlation investigation between the CYP6BQ8 gene and terpinen-4-ol resistance in T. castaneum revealed that the TcCYP6BQ8 gene was one of the factors behind T. castaneum's resistance to terpinen-4-ol. This discovery may provide a new theoretical foundation for future regulation of T. castaneum.
In the Three Gorges and adjacent areas, there are three planation surfaces and five terraces along the Yangtze River that record the evolution history of the river system. Here, we used diagnostic heavy minerals, U-Pb geochronology, and trace elements of detrital zircons from one planation surface, two terraces, and a modern point bar to reconstruct the evolution history of the upper Yangtze River, specifically the Chuan River in the Sichuan Basin. The sediments in the lowest planation surface had different felsic source rocks derived from east of the Three Gorges, which indicated that before the disintegration of the lowest planation surface (0.75 Ma), there were two paleorivers: the westward-flowing paleo-Chuan River and eastward-flowing paleo-Yangtze River separated by the Huangling Dome. At 0.75–0.73 Ma, the dominant detrital zircons from the Sichuan Basin in the sediments of terrace T5 (the highest terrace) confirmed that the paleo-Yangtze River cut through the Three Gorges and captured the paleo-Chuan River, and the Daliang Mountains became the new drainage divide. Finally, the appearance of materials from the upper Jinsha River in terrace T2 indicated that the paleo-Yangtze River progressively captured the paleo-Jinsha River, and the modern upper Yangtze River formed before 0.05 Ma. These river capture events of the upper Yangtze River confirmed the Quaternary uplift of the SE Tibetan Plateau.
Patients with cirrhosis experience worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and attempts are warranted further exploration of modifiable factors to improve HRQoL. Data on the impact of malnutrition risk on HRQoL among cirrhosis are limited; thus, we aimed to strengthen understanding by clarifying the relationship between nutritional status and low HRQoL in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Consecutive inpatients with cirrhosis attending our department within a tertiary hospital were studied. Generic health profiles and malnutrition risk were evaluated by the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) score, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine association of malnutrition risk with low HRQoL. In this cohort of 364 patients with median age of 64 years and 49·5 % male, 55·5 % of the study population reported impairment pertinent to HRQoL in at least one dimension in terms of the EQ-5D. Moreover, malnutrition risk (RFH-NPT score: β coefficient = −0·114, P = 0·038) was proved to be independently associated with poor HRQoL in multiple analysis, after adjustment for significant variables like age, BMI and markers of decompensation. Notably, we found that health dimensions representing physical function (i.e. mobility, self-care and usual activities) are substantially affected, while malnourished patients reported less frequencies of complaints in other domain such as anxiety/depression. In conclusion, the risk of malnutrition assessed by the RFH-NPT score is independently associated with low HRQoL. It is operational to improve HRQoL by identifying patients at high malnutrition risk and providing timely nutrition treatment.
The authors report on new discoveries from Sanxingdui in south-west China. The multidisciplinary approach used at Sanxingdui has enriched the theory and methodology of field archaeology and sets a precedent for future scientific excavations.
Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to examine whether the dysregulation of complement components contributes to brain structural defects in patients with mood disorders.
A total of 52 BD patients, 35 MDD patients, and 53 controls were recruited. The human complement immunology assay was used to measure the levels of complement factors. Whole brain-based analysis was performed to investigate differences in gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) among the BD, MDD, and control groups, and relationships were explored between neuroanatomical differences and levels of complement components.
GMV in the medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC) and middle cingulum was lower in both patient groups than in controls, while the CT of the left precentral gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus were affected differently in the two disorders. Concentrations of C1q, C4, factor B, factor H, and properdin were higher in both patient groups than in controls, while concentrations of C3, C4 and factor H were significantly higher in BD than in MDD. Concentrations of C1q, factor H, and properdin showed a significant negative correlation with GMV in the mOFC at the voxel-wise level.
BD and MDD are associated with shared and different alterations in levels of complement factors and structural impairment in the brain. Structural defects in mOFC may be associated with elevated levels of certain complement factors, providing insight into the shared neuro-inflammatory pathogenesis of mood disorders.
With the rapid development of the national economy, the demand for electricity is also growing. Thermal power generation accounts for the highest proportion of power generation, and coal is the most commonly used combustion material. The massive combustion of coal has led to serious environmental pollution. It is significant to improve energy conversion efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions effectively. In this paper, an extreme learning machine model based on improved Kalman particle swarm optimization (ELM-IKPSO) is proposed to establish the boiler combustion model. The proposed modeling method is applied to the combustion modeling process of a 300 MWe pulverized coal boiler. The simulation results show that compared with the same type of modeling method, ELM-IKPSO can better predict the boiler thermal efficiency and NOx emission concentration and also show better generalization performance. Finally, multi-objective optimization is carried out on the established model, and a set of mutually non-dominated boiler combustion solutions is obtained.
To integrate the uneven terrain adaptivity of legged robots and the fast capacity of wheeled robots on even terrains, a four wheel-legged robot is addressed and the cooperative control strategy of wheels and legs based on attitude balance is investigated. Firstly, the kinematics of wheel-legged robot is analyzed, which contains the legged and wheeled motion modal. Secondly, the cooperative control strategy of wheel-legged robot based on attitude balance is proposed. The attitude is calculated by using the quaternion method and complementary filtering, and the attitude stability control of the wheel-legged robot is studied. The trajectory planning of leg motion including walk and trot gait is implemented, and the differential control of wheeled motion is deduced. And then, the cooperative motion control of wheels and legs is achieved by keeping the attitude balance of robot body. Finally, a small prototype is set up to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed method. The experimental results show that the established wheel-legged robot can do walk, trot, and wheel-leg compound motion to overcome many complex terrains and environments.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can cause substantial damage to quality of life. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a promising treatment for OCD patients with the advantages of safety and noninvasiveness.
The present study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of cTBS over the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) for OCD patients with a single-blind, sham-controlled design.
Fifty-four OCD patients were randomized to receive active or sham cTBS treatment over the bilateral SMA for 4 weeks (five sessions per week, 20 sessions in total). Patients were assessed at baseline (week 0), the end of treatment (week 4), and follow-up (week 8). Clinical scales included the YBOCS, HAMD24, HAMA14, and OBQ44. Three behavioral tests were also conducted to explore the effect of cTBS on response inhibition and decision-making in OCD patients.
The treatment response rates were not significantly different between the two groups at week 4 (active: 23.1% vs. sham: 16.7%, p = 0.571) and week 8 (active: 26.9% vs. sham: 16.7%, p = 0.382). Depression and anxiety improvements were significantly different between the two groups at week 4 (HAMD24: F = 4.644, p = 0.037; HAMA14: F = 5.219, p = 0.028). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the performance of three behavioral tests. The treatment satisfaction and dropout rates were not significantly different between the two groups.
The treatment of cTBS over the bilateral SMA was safe and tolerable, and it could significantly improve the depression and anxiety of OCD patients but was not enough to improve OCD symptoms in this study.
Treatment non-response and recurrence are the main sources of disease burden in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about its neurobiological mechanism concerning the brain network changes accompanying pharmacotherapy. The present study investigated the changes in the intrinsic brain networks during 6-month antidepressant treatment phase associated with the treatment response and recurrence in MDD.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from untreated patients with MDD and healthy controls at baseline. The patients' depressive symptoms were monitored by using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). After 6 months of antidepressant treatment, patients were re-scanned and followed up every 6 months over 2 years. Traditional statistical analysis as well as machine learning approaches were conducted to investigate the longitudinal changes in macro-scale resting-state functional network connectivity (rsFNC) strength and micro-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) associated with long-term treatment outcome in MDD.
Repeated measures of the general linear model demonstrated a significant difference in the default mode network (DMN) rsFNC change before and after the 6-month antidepressant treatment between remitters and non-remitters. The difference in the rsFNC change over the 6-month antidepressant treatment between recurring and stable MDD was also specific to DMN. Machine learning analysis results revealed that only the DMN rsFC change successfully distinguished non-remitters from the remitters at 6 months and recurring from stable MDD during the 2-year follow-up.
Our findings demonstrated that the intrinsic DMN connectivity could be a unique and important target for treatment and recurrence prevention in MDD.
Based on a broad literature review of journal and book publications, governmental archives, and annals, this study comprehensively examines the special contribution of Yunnan, China, to understanding East Asian catarrhines (colobines, macaques), as well as hominoids, gibbons, hominins, and modern ethnic groups since the Later Miocene or Early Pliocene. It spatially demonstrates their relationship, particularly that between primates and archaic and modern humans. The results indicate that a specific region in Yunnan, joining with the southeast Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, the end of the eastern margin of the Himalayas, and the Hengduan Mountains (SQPMH), is globally distinctive in promoting catarrhine dispersion, radiation, speciation, and evolution in East and Southeast Asia. This area forms the gateway between West, East and Southeast. Six major archaeological sites in Yunnan (Yuanmou, Jiangchuan, Tangzigou, Xianrendong, Xiaodong, and Maludong) share the same environments and habitats with primates, indicating a strong tendency for coexistence. Yunnan also offered an exclusive refugium for plants, animals, and humans during the glaciation so that it maintains the largest numbers of ethnic groups (26) and primate species (21 of 25 species) in China. Although primates inspired significant contributions to arts, culture, social life, and medical research for humans, as in other parts of China, they have suffered greatly in recent Chinese history, particularly since the second half of the last century, resulting in the extirpation of two gibbon species in the province.
East Asia, Yunnan, Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Mts. Hengduan, Refugium, Homo, Primates, Dispersion, Catarrhine Evolution
A new bisexual species of Rotylenchus is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations. Rotylenchus zhongshanensis sp. nov. is characterized by having a conoid lip region complying with the basic pattern for Hoplolaimidae, but with pharyngeal glands slightly overlapping intestine dorsally and cuticle thickened abnormally in female tail terminus. Females have robust stylet (30.1–33.8 μm). The pharyngeal gland has short dorsal (11.2–16.8 μm) overlap on the intestine. The vulva is located at 48.0–56.5% of body length, and phasmids are pore-like, 4–6 annuli posterior to the anus. For males, phasmids are pore-like, 11–17 annuli posterior to cloaca. The spicules are ventrally arcuate (21.0–28.5 μm) with gubernaculum in 5–8 μm length. The rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes were successfully sequenced from the assembled whole-genome sequences of the new species, and were used for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of the new species. A new strain of cyto-endosymbiont Cardinium was also discovered from the genome sequences of R. zhongshanensis sp. nov. The 16S rRNA phylogeny analyses revealed that this new bacterial strain is closed to that from cyst and root-lesion nematodes.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat) or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/l). After 14-week of intervention, NAC rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic TAG, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate transaminase and liver histomorphology (haematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52 167 (50 758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNA were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNA was changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNA, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902·1 (NO_902·1), lncRNA-XR_001781798·1 (XR_798·1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720·1 (NO_720·1), lncRNA-XR_869907·1 (XR_907·1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181), were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change value of greater than 4, P-value < 0·01 and P-adjusted value < 0·01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed the levels of lncRNA-NO_902·1, lncRNA-XR_798·1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNA, and 13 mRNA, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a transmembrane protein and the precursor of irisin, which serves as a systemic exerkine/myokine with multiple origins. Since its discovery in 2012, this hormone-like polypeptide has rapidly evolved to a component significantly involved in a gamut of metabolic dysregulations and various liver diseases. After a decade of extensive investigation on FNDC5/irisin, we are still surrounded by lots of open questions regarding its diagnostic and therapeutic values. In this review, we first concentrated on the structure–function relationship of FNDC5/irisin. Next, we comprehensively summarised the current knowledge and research findings regarding pathogenic roles/therapeutic applications of FNDC5/irisin in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, fibrosis, liver injury due to multiple detrimental insults, hepatic malignancy and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Moreover, the prominent molecules involved in the underlying mechanisms and signalling pathways were highlighted. As a result, emerging evidence reveals FNDC5/irisin may act as a proxy for diagnosing liver disease pathology, a sensitive biomarker for assessing damage severity, a predisposing factor for surveilling illness progression and a treatment option with protective/preventive impact, all of which are highly dependent on disease grading and contextually pathological features.