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This essay describes the histories of the Middle English Dictionary (MED, completed in 2001) and the Dictionary of Old English (DOE, still in progress), their editorial procedures, and how each one has dealt with the problems facing it. For the MED, those problems included how to reconcile the fairly reliable dates of the manuscripts with the usually conjectural composition dates in the dating of illustrative quotations; how to distinguish the chronological dimension from the synchronic dimension and at the same time to distinguish the geographical/regional dimension from the chronological; and how to balance the original conception of a bilingual translation dictionary with the need to define as accurately as possible. For the DOE, those problems included how to develop a comprehensive electronic corpus of Old English texts, as well as to maintain and renew it; how to mark up the digital DOE to capture its deeply embedded information so that both Anglo-Saxon language and culture are accessible; how to connect outward to other relevant digital resources to enlarge DOE’s interpretative environment; and finally, how to balance the writing of definitions without claiming more knowledge than exists for this early material.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Hepatitis B and C virus causes inflammation of the liver and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to generate a modeled estimate of changes in hepatitis B and C prevalence, and future sequelae, that accounts for recent mass migration to the European Union stemming from 50 high-emigration countries. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Total migrant population from 2013-2017 was obtained from the Eurostat population database. Demographics including country-of-origin, sex, and age distributions were used to determine migrant contributions to HBV and HCV prevalence where available. Undocumented migration estimates were obtained from the Institute of Migration database. Country-of-origin HBV and HCV prevalences were obtained for the select 50 country-of-origin nations from the Polaris Observatory and from systematic reviews. Disease progression was estimated using HBV and HCV outcome data for total populations from treatment guideline publication from the European Association for the Study of the Liver. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2017, a total of 11,030,786 documented migrants born outside the EU arrived to the 30 nations. Germany, United Kingdom, and Spain received the greatest influx of persons and the majority of migration stemmed from countries in West Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. A significant proportion of total migration was driven by conflict-related crisis in Syria, and East and North Africa. The most significant increases in estimated total hepatitis case numbers, national prevalence increases, and future sequelae were seen in Germany and Sweden. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Mass migration has significantly changed HBV and HCV disease burden in Europe over the past 5 years. Consequently, long-term outcomes of cirrhosis and HCC are also expected to increase. These increases are likely to disproportionally impact individuals of the migrant and refugee communities. HBV and HCV surveillance and management programs must strategically focus on individuals from high-burden age cohorts and nations. Screening and treatment would aid WHO elimination efforts while benefiting both the vulnerable individuals and host nations through reduction of morbidity, mortality, and associated healthcare expenses.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Mayo Clinic Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) Predoctoral program aims to develop independent researchers capable of leading multi-disciplinary teams to accelerate the translation of discovery to application. Here, we detail the outcomes of our graduates over the past ten years (2010-2019). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION:): A survey was fielded with all CTS graduates whose degrees were conferred since the program’s inception to 2019. Items addressed their current position, whether they were still involved in research, what type of research they were involved in, and whether they stayed involved with education. They also submitted a recent CV, from which data were collected about publications and grants. A subset were then contacted for a semi-structured interview. Items included questions addressing motivation for pursuing a PhD in CTS, whether the program prepared them for their current work, gaps they felt they had in training, and whether they felt they were making a difference in the lives of patients. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 41 alumni, 34 responded (83% response rate). Of these, 19 (56%) are at Mayo Clinic, 9 (26%) work for other academic institutions, and 6 (21%) do not work for an academic institution. Most have remained in research (33/34, 97%). The majority (22/33, 67%) are involved in clinical research, 30% (10/33) in basic science, and 24% (8/33) in healthcare delivery research. Most (23/34, 68%) are engaged in educational activities. When asked about changes they have led, 67% (18/27) led quality improvement projects and 44% (12/27) designed a new research method. Several hold leadership positions either in their organization (12/16, 75%) or in a professional organization (10/16, 63%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTS Predoctoral program successfully prepares scholars for careers involving clinical and translational research; furthermore, alumni remain in research-oriented careers after graduation. We will continue to gather longitudinal data alumni move forward in their careers.
Many writings on the changing nature of work portray the employee–organization relationship as a casualty of the modern workplace. This chapter reviews social exchange models of the employee–organization relationship as captured in organizational support and psychological contract theories. We explore the evidence of the extent to which the employee–organization relationship has changed as a result of changes in employment practices over the past several decades. Our analysis considers both overall trends in the employee–organization relationship as well as specific issues tied to temporary and part-time work, independent contractors, tripartite employment relationships, job insecurity, job hopping, and income inequality. The evidence suggests that while certain employment practices threaten the quality of the employee–organization relationship, social exchange models provide useful and relevant frameworks through which to understand the nature of these changes and employees’ reactions to them.
This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until ‘comfortably full’ (ad libitum) and on the other, until they ‘could not eat another bite’ (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine–tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.
To investigate the percentage of patients who commenced smoking after transferring out of a non-smoking forensic psychiatric unit, the corresponding clozapine dose adjustments, the effects on plasma clozapine/norclozapine concentrations and observed changes in mental state. We reviewed the notes and plasma clozapine/norclozapine concentrations of 46 patients transferred to medium secure units between July 2008 and December 2013.
Thirty-five patients commenced smoking. Their median clozapine dose was increased by 50 mg/d. In the non-smokers, the median clozapine dose remained unchanged. Plasma clozapine/norclozapine concentrations were significantly reduced in smokers despite dosage adjustment. Eighteen patients experienced deterioration in mental state after transfer; almost all these patients were smokers.
Approximately three-quarters of patients who were non-smokers by virtue of being in a secure non-smoking environment commenced smoking after transfer. Monitoring of clozapine serum levels and assessment of mental state in the immediate period after a change in smoking status is indicated.
Communication Skills for Business Professionals, second edition, is a student-friendly introduction to effective communication in the workplace. Engagingly written, the text covers foundational topics such as audience, influence, channels, conflict and persuasion, before investigating more complex areas such as intercultural communication, virtual communication, researching in the era of 'fake news' and strategies for successful written communication. Taking a broad and current approach to concepts of communication and workplaces, Communication Skills for Business Professionals explores situations from virtual meetings between indie creatives, to speeches given by politicians, while still covering more traditional forms of professional communication, such as pitching to boards and memos. New pedagogical features such as skill builder class activities, margin definitions and links to online content make this book indispensable for teachers and students of communications alike.