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Environmental risk factors for dementia are poorly understood. Aluminium and fluorine in drinking water have been linked with dementia but uncertainties remain about this relationship.
In the largest longitudinal study in this context, we set out to explore the individual effect of aluminium and fluoride in drinking water on dementia risk and, as fluorine can increase absorption of aluminium, we also examine any synergistic influence on dementia.
We used Cox models to investigate the association between mean aluminium and fluoride levels in drinking water at their residential location (collected 2005–2012 by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland) with dementia in members of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 cohort who were alive in 2005.
A total of 1972 out of 6990 individuals developed dementia by the linkage date in 2012. Dementia risk was raised with increasing mean aluminium levels in women (hazard ratio per s.d. increase 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.15, P < 0.001) and men (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.21, P = 0.004). A dose-response pattern of association was observed between mean fluoride levels and dementia in women (1.34, 95% CI 1.28–1.41, P < 0.001) and men (1.30, 95% CI 1.22–1.39, P < 0.001), with dementia risk more than doubled in the highest quartile compared with the lowest. There was no statistical interaction between aluminium and fluoride levels in relation with dementia.
Higher levels of aluminium and fluoride were related to dementia risk in a population of men and women who consumed relatively low drinking-water levels of both.
Cognitive markers of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) should be sensitive and specific to memory impairments that are not associated with healthy cognitive aging. In the present study, we investigated the effect of healthy cognitive aging on two proposed cognitive markers of AD: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Task with Immediate Recall (FCSRT-IR) and a temporary visual memory binding (TMB) task.
Free recall and the cost of holding bound information in visual memory were compared between 24 younger and 24 older participants in a mixed, fully counterbalanced experiment.
A significant effect of age was observed on free recall in the FCSRT-IR only and not on the cost of binding in the TMB task.
Of these two cognitive markers, the TMB task is more likely to be specific to memory impairments that are independent of age.
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