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Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science is not a formal element of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program, and D&I science activities across the CTSA Consortium are largely unknown.
The CTSA Dissemination, Implementation, and Knowledge Translation Working Group surveyed CTSA leaders to explore D&I science-related activities, barriers, and needed supports, then conducted univariate and qualitative analyses of the data.
Out of 67 CTSA leaders, 55.2% responded. CTSAs reported directly funding D&I programs (54.1%), training (51.4%), and projects (59.5%). Indirect support (e.g., promoted by CTSA without direct funding) for D&I activities was higher – programs (70.3%), training (64.9%), and projects (54.1%). Top barriers included funding (39.4%), limited D&I science faculty (30.3%), and lack of D&I science understanding (27.3%). Respondents (63.4%) noted the importance of D&I training and recommended coordination of D&I activities across CTSAs hubs (33.3%).
These findings should guide CTSA leadership in efforts to raise awareness and advance the role of D&I science in improving population health.
Comparative studies of placentation across mammals have been greatly facilitated by the availability of phylogenetic trees for the entire range of placental mammals based on molecular data. The three basic placenta types defined by Grosser on grounds of increasing invasiveness epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial, and hemochorial have routinely served as a basis for comparative discussions. Primates differ starkly from all other placental mammal orders because the two extreme kinds of placentation are represented, while the moderately invasive is not. Reliable inference of the primitive condition is an essential starting-point for successful reconstruction of the evolution of placentation in placental mammals. Having considered the general background to evolution of the placenta in primates, it is now possible to focus specifically on catarrhines Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. The architecture of the placenta is notably different in New World monkeys (platyrrhines), which diverged from catarrhines at least 40 mya.
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