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The optimal perioperative feeding strategies for neonates with CHD are unknown. In the present study, we describe the current feeding practices across a multi-institutional cohort.
Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: all neonates undergoing cardiac surgery admitted to the cardiac ICU for ⩾24 hours preoperatively between October, 2013 and July, 2014 in the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry.
The cohort included 251 patients from eight centres. The most common diagnoses included the following: hypoplastic left heart syndrome (17%), coarctation/aortic arch hypoplasia (18%), and transposition of the great arteries (22%); 14% of the patients were <37weeks of gestational age. The median total hospital length of stay was 21 days (interquartile range (IQR) 14–35) and overall mortality was 8%. Preoperative feeding occurred in 133 (53%) patients. The overall preoperative feeding rates across centres ranged from 29 to 79%. Postoperative feeds started on median day 2 (IQR 1–4); for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome postoperative feeds started on median day 4. Postoperative feeds were initiated in 89 (35%) patients before extubation (range across centres: 21–61%). The median cardiac ICU discharge feeding volume was 108 cc/kg/day, varying across centres. The mean discharge weight was 280 g above birth weight, ranging from +100 to 430 g across centres. A total of 110 (44%) patients had discharge feeding tubes, ranging from 6 to 80% across centres, and 40/110 patients had gastrostomy/enterostomy tubes placed. In addition, eight (3.2%) patients developed necrotising enterocolitis – three preoperatively and five postoperatively.
In this cohort, neonatal feeding practices and outcomes appear to vary across diagnostic groups and institutions. Only half of the patients received preoperative enteral nutrition; almost half had discharge feeding tubes. Multi-institutional collaboration is necessary to determine feeding strategies associated with best clinical outcomes.
In 2007–2008, several US hospitals reported summertime increases in the number of clinical blood cultures positive for Bacillus species, which are common environmental bacteria.
To investigate increased rates of isolation of Bacillus species from blood cultures, identify risk factors, and recommend control strategies.
Survey and case-control study.
Multiple hospitals, including a cancer center.
We surveyed 24 facilities that reported increases. We also conducted a field investigation at a hospital with a high rate, reviewing charts, collecting clinical and environmental isolates, and observing infection control procedures. A case-control study compared inpatient case patients who had any blood culture positive for Bacillus with unmatched control patients who had a blood culture with no growth during June-August 2008.
Among surveyed facilities, mean monthly rates rose from 25 to a peak of 75 Bacillus-positive blood cultures per 10,000 blood cultures performed during the period June-August. At the hospital where the case-control investigation was conducted, for most case patients (75%), the Bacillus-positive blood cultures represented contamination or device colonization rather than infection. We enrolled 48 case patients and 48 control patients; in multivariate analysis, only central venous access device use was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio, 14.0; P < .01). Laboratory testing identified at least 12 different Bacillus species (non-anthracis) among the isolates. Observation of infection control procedures revealed variability in central line care and blood sample collection techniques.
Periodic increases in the environmental load of Bacillus species may occur in hospitals. Our investigation indicated that at one facility, these increases likely represented a pseudo-outbreak of Bacillus species colonizing central venous lines or their accessories, such as needleless connector devices. Vigilant attention should be paid to infection control practices when collecting blood samples for culture, to minimize the risk of contamination by environmental microorganisms.