To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
NP-complete problems should be hard on some instances but those may be extremely rare. On generic instances many such problems, especially related to random graphs, have been proved to be easy. We show the intractability of random instances of a graph colouring problem: this graph problem is hard on average unless all NP problems under all samplable (i.e. generatable in polynomial time) distributions are easy. Worst case reductions use special gadgets and typically map instances into a negligible fraction of possible outputs. Ours must output nearly random graphs and avoid any super-polynomial distortion of probabilities. This poses significant technical difficulties.
We study the minimal complexity of tilings of a plane with a given tile set. We note that every tile set admits either no tiling or some tiling with Kolmogorov complexity of its (n × n)-squares. We construct tile sets for which this bound is tight: all (n × n)-squares in all tilings have complexity Ω(n). This adds a quantitative angle to classical results on non-recursivity of tilings—that we also develop in terms of Turing degrees of unsolvability.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.