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To compare the accuracy of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in tracking mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).
A Systematic review of the PubMed, Bireme, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo databases was conducted. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria and staring with 1,629 articles, 34 articles were selected. The quality of the selected research was evaluated through the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2).
More than 80% of the articles showed MoCA to be superior to MMSE in discriminating between individuals with mild cognitive impairment and no cognitive impairment. The area under the curve varied from 0.71 to 0.99 for MoCA, and 0.43 to 0.94 for MMSE, when evaluating the ability to discriminate MCI in the cognitively healthy elderly individuals, and 0.87 to 0.99 and 0.67 to 0.99, respectively, when evaluating the detection of AD. The AUC mean value for MoCA was significantly larger compared to the MMSE in discriminating MCI from control [0.883 (CI 95% 0.855-0.912) vs MMSE 0.780 (CI 95% 0.740-0.820) p < 0.001].
The screening tool MoCA is superior to MMSE in the identification of MCI, and both tests were found to be accurate in the detection of AD.
Cleaning interactions between the wrasse Symphodus melanocercus and brown meagre Sciaena umbra are documented from observations whilst free diving on a shallow rocky reef in the central Mediterranean Sea. Cleaning events occurred at cleaning stations mainly during the morning and gradually decreased in the evening. The body parts mostly cleaned were the opercular region and the fins, possibly as gnathiid isopods preferentially attach to these areas.
The behavior of nanostructures under high strain-rate conditions has been object of interest in recent years. For instance, recent experimental investigations showed that at high velocity impacts carbon nanotubes can unzip resulting into graphene nanoribbons. Carbon nanoscrolls (CNS) are among the structures whose high impact behavior has not yet been investigated. CNS are graphene membranes rolled up into papyrus-like structures. Their unique open-ended topology leads to properties not found in close-ended structures, such as nanotubes. Here we report a fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics study on the behavior of CNS colliding at high velocities against solid targets. Our results show that the velocity and scroll axis orientation are key parameters to determine the resulting formed nanostructures after impact. The relative orientation of the scroll open ends and the substrate is also very important. We observed that for appropriate velocities and orientations, the nanoscrolls can experience large structural deformations and large-scale fractures. We have also observed unscrolling (scrolls going back to planar or quasi-planar graphene membranes), unzip resulting into nanoribbons, and significant reconstructions from breaking and/or formation of new chemical bonds. Another interesting result was that if the CNS impact the substrate with their open ends, for certain velocities, fused scroll walls were observed.
In this work we use a three-dimensional Pauli master equation to investigate the charge carrier mobility of a two-phase system, which can mimic donor-acceptor and amorphous-crystalline bulk heterojunctions. Our approach can be separated into two parts: the morphology generation and the charge transport modeling in the generated blend. The morphology part is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of binary mixtures (donor/acceptor). The second part is carried out by numerically solving the steady-state Pauli master equation. By taking the energetic disorder of each phase, their energy offset and domain morphology into consideration, we show that the carrier mobility can have a significant different behavior when compared to a one-phase system. When the energy offset is non-zero, we show that the mobility electric field dependence switches from negative to positive at a threshold field proportional to the energy offset. Additionally, the influence of morphology, through the domain size and the interfacial roughness parameters, on the transport was also investigated.
In this work we present preliminary results from multi-million fully atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations carried out to test different existing mechanisms that have been proposed in the literature to explain the drawing of yarns from carbon nanotube forests. Despite the fact that it has been almost ten years since yarns were first drawn, there are still controversies on the mechanisms and necessary conditions that can produce yarns and sheets drawn from carbon nanotube forests. Moreover, few works have tried to understand at atomistic level the details of yarn drawing mechanisms, and no fully atomistic simulations have been carried out so far on this particular subject. Our preliminary results suggest that only direct van der Waals interactions among large bundles seem not to be enough to explain the yarn drawing process. Bundle interconnectors (such as small bundles connecting large bundles) were observed to play a critical role in our simulations. Depending on the topology of these interconnectors it was possible to observe from the simulations fibers/yarn formation from proposed structural models. These models were built based on structural information inferred from scanning electron microscopy data.
Graphene has been one of the most important subjects in materials science in the last years. Recently, the frictional characteristics of atomically thin sheets were experimentally investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A new mechanism to explain the enhanced friction for these materials, based on elastic compliance has been proposed. Here, we have investigated the tribological properties of graphene and boron-nitride (single and multi-layers) membranes using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations were carried out using classical force fields, as implemented in the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) code. The used structural models contain typically hundreds of thousands of atoms. In order to mimic the experimental conditions, an artificial AFM tip was moved over the membranes and the tribological characteristics determined in terms of forces and energies. Our results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. They show that the observed enhanced tribological properties can be explained in terms of out-of-plane geometrical distortions and elastic waves propagation. They validate the general features of the model proposed by Lee et al. (Science 328, 76 (2010).
In this work we present preliminary results from molecular dynamics simulations for carbon nanotubes serpentine dynamics formation. These S-like nanostructures consist of a series of parallel and straight nanotube segments connected by alternating U-turn shaped curves. Nanotube serpentines were experimentally synthesized and reported in recent years, but up to now no atomistic simulations have been carried out to address the dynamics of formation of these structures. We have carried out fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in the framework of classical mechanics with a standard molecular force field. Multi-million atoms structures formed by stepped substrates with a carbon nanotube (about 1 micron in length) placed on top of them have been considered in our simulations. A force is applied to the upper part of the tube during a short period of time and then turned off and the system set free to evolve in time. Our results showed that these conditions are sufficient to form robust serpentines and validate the general features of the ‘falling spaghetti mechanism’ previously proposed to explain their formation.
Dias FM, Doyle F, Kummer A, Cardoso F, Fontenelle LF, Teixeira AL. Frequency of psychiatric disorders in blepharospasm does not differ from hemifacial spasm.
To compare the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms between patients with blepharospasm (BS) and hemifacial spasm (HS).
BS is a type of primary focal dystonia characterised by recurrent and involuntary eye blinking. HS is a condition with different pathophysiology but similar clinical phenotype. Twenty-two patients with BS and 29 patients with HS participated in this study. They underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation that included a structured clinical interview for current psychiatric diagnosis according to Diagnostic Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (MINI-Plus) and psychometric scales, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS).
BS and HS groups did not differ in most demographic and clinical parameters, such as gender, age and length of symptoms. The frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms were similar in both groups.
BS does not seem to have more psychiatric disorders than HS.
The community structure of shallow rocky reef fish fauna of the Azores Archipelago is described from underwater visual censuses carried out at eight areas (Terceira and Corvo Islands). A total of 52 fish species from 26 different families was observed, and the ten most abundant fish corresponded to 82.7% of all fish. Trophic categories are given for observed species with comments on distribution and densities along sampled depth strata. Mean densities along sampled strata were tested for significant differences. Sparidae, Labridae and Carangidae were the most speciose families being Diplodus sargus, Pagellus acarne, Coris julis, Thalassoma pavo and Tripterygion delaisi the most abundant species that consequently also accounted for the highest densities.
Cleaning interactions among the rainbow wrasse Coris julis and the azorean blue wrasse Centrolabrus caeruleus are presented with photographic registers, as well as the first record of the latter cleaning conspecifics from Azorean shallow rocky reefs.
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