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Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
Measurements made by an underwater glider deployed near the Ross Ice Shelf were used to identify the presence of Ice Shelf Water (ISW), which is defined as seawater with its potential temperature lower than its surface freezing point temperature. Properties logged by the glider included in situ temperature, electrical conductivity, pressure, GPS location at surfacings and time. For most of the first 30 recorded dives of its deployment, evidence suggests the glider was prevented from surfacing due to being under the ice shelf. For dives under the ice shelf, farthest from the ice shelf front, ISW layers of varying thicknesses and depth locations were observed; between 2 m thick (centred at 231 m depth) to >93 m thick (centred at >360 m). For dives under the ice shelf, close to the ice shelf front, either no ISW was observed or ISW layers were centred at shallower depths (116–127 m). Thicker ISW layers (e.g. up to 250 m thickness centred at 421 m) were observed for some glider dives in open water in front of the Ross Ice Shelf. No in situ supercooling (water colder than the pressure-dependent freezing point temperature) was observed.
In recent years there has been growing acknowledgement of the place of workhouses within the range of institutional provision for mentally disordered people in nineteenth-century England. This article explores the situation in Bristol, where an entrenched workhouse-based model was retained for an extended period in the face of mounting external ideological and political pressures to provide a proper lunatic asylum. It signified a contest between the modernising, reformist inclinations of central state agencies and local bodies seeking to retain their freedom of action. The conflict exposed contrasting conceptions regarding the nature of services to which the insane poor were entitled.
Bristol pioneered establishment of a central workhouse under the old Poor Law; ‘St Peter’s Hospital’ was opened in 1698. As a multi-purpose welfare institution its clientele included ‘lunatics’ and ‘idiots’, for whom there was specific accommodation from before the 1760s. Despite an unhealthy city centre location and crowded, dilapidated buildings, the enterprising Bristol authorities secured St Peter’s Hospital’s designation as a county lunatic asylum in 1823. Its many deficiencies brought condemnation in the national survey of provision for the insane in 1844. In the period following the key lunacy legislation of 1845, the Home Office and Commissioners in Lunacy demanded the replacement of the putative lunatic asylum within Bristol’s workhouse by a new borough asylum outside the city. The Bristol authorities resisted stoutly for several years, but were eventually forced to succumb and adopt the prescribed model of institutional care for the pauper insane.
Because polarization encodes geometrical information about unresolved scattering regions, it provides a unique tool for analyzing the 3-D structures of supernovae (SNe) and their surroundings. SNe of all types exhibit time-dependent spectropolarimetric signatures produced primarily by electron scattering. These signatures reveal physical phenomena such as complex velocity structures, changing illumination patterns, and asymmetric morphologies within the ejecta and surrounding material. Interpreting changes in polarization over time yields unprecedentedly detailed information about supernovae, their progenitors, and their evolution.
Begun in 2012, the SNSPOL Project continues to amass the largest database of time-dependent spectropolarimetric data on SNe. I present an overview of the project and its recent results. In the future, combining such data with interpretive radiative transfer models will further constrain explosion mechanisms and processes that shape SN ejecta, uncover new relationships among SN types, and probe the properties of progenitor winds and circumstellar material.
We present the observed “continuum” levels of polarization as a function of time for four well-observed Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P; Fig. 1), the class of SNe decisively determined to arise from red supergiant stars (Smartt 2009). All four objects show temporally increasing degrees of polarization through the end of the photospheric phase, with some exhibiting early-time polarization that challenge existing models (e.g., Dessart and Hillier 2011) to reproduce. A fundamental ejecta asymmetry is present in this photometrically diverse sample of type II SNe, and it probably takes different forms (e.g., 56Ni blobs/fingers, large scale deformation). We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311.
A distinctive feature of polar regions is the formation of ice clusters attached to the seabed, known as ‘anchor ice’. Anchor ice plays an important role in mobilizing bed sediments, and serves ecological roles providing habitats, or as an agent of disturbance creating potentially fatal environments to benthic fauna. The sublittoral zone associated with the landward margin represents the most likely environment for anchor ice formation, where conditions conducive to the advection of supercooled water from sub-ice-shelf cavities are favourable. We develop a framework to estimate the areal extent of anchor ice formation assuming a northerly flow of 75m deep supercooled water plumes from the Ross and McMurdo Ice Shelf cavities, Antarctica. In McMurdo Sound our results indicate that regions beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf, extending along Brown Peninsula and White and Black Islands, are likely conducive to anchor ice formation. Anchor ice may also form along the Hut Point Peninsula and around Ross Island, and in pockets along the southern Victoria Land coast. The limitations of our approach include an imposed northerly flow of Ice Shelf Water, poorly constrained sub-ice-shelf bathymetry, and temporal variability in supercooled water depth production, particularly in the eastern Sound.
This chapter deals with the implications of uncertainty in the practice of climate modelling for communicating model-based findings to decision-makers, particularly high-resolution predictions intended to inform decision-making on adaptation to climate change. Our general claim is that methodological reflections on uncertainty in scientific practices should provide guidance on how their results can be used more responsibly in decision support. In the case of decisions that need to be made to adapt to climate change, societal actors, both public and private, are confronted with deep uncertainty. In fact, it has been argued that some of the questions these actors may ask ‘cannot be answered by science’. In this chapter, the notions of ‘reliability’ are examined critically; in particular the manner(s) in which the reliability of climate model findings pertaining to model-based high-resolution climate predictions is communicated. A broader discussion of these issues can be found in the chapter by Beck, in this volume.
Findings can be considered ‘reliable’ in many different ways. Often only a statistical notion of reliability is implied, but in this chapter we consider wider variations on the meaning of ‘reliability’, some more relevant to decision support than the mere uncertainty in a particular calculation.
One of the central questions of the history of the First World War is whether autocracies or democracies were better at waging war. This chapter surveys the way in which different political structures responded to the challenge of war. The global character of military conflict was limited, except with respect to Japan and to the United States at a late stage, both with great consequences. When the First World War broke out, five European states were at the centre of events: Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France and the United Kingdom. The first non-European state to enter the war when it had barely begun was, paradoxically, Japan. Woodrow Wilson engaged the United States in the war for the freedom of the seas and the survival of democracy in the world. Georges Clemenceau's government is considered as the first war government. It was the most representative regimes which won the war and that everywhere in Europe, after the war, democracy was predominant.
Jonathan Reinarz, Director of the History of Medicine Unit at the University of Birmingham, UK.,Leonard Schwarz, Retired as a Reader in Urban History at the University of Birmingham, where he founded the Birmingham Eighteenth Century Centre.
The significance of the workhouse in the tapestry of care for mentally disordered people in England has tended to be underestimated by historians. The nineteenth century has been regarded principally as the era of the rise and triumph of the universal, monolithic public lunatic asylum system. County authorities were first empowered to establish a pauper lunatic asylum as early as 1808. Several had taken the opportunity before the key legislation of 1845 mandated counties and boroughs to provide an asylum. Within a decade almost every county had built an asylum, on its own or in conjunction with others, or was in the process of doing so. These great “museums of madness,” as Andrew Scull has evocatively styled them, laid the basis of institutional provision for generations to come. Between 1850 and 1900 the numbers and size of the county asylums continued to expand steadily, as did the numbers of people confined within them.
The purpose-designed county lunatic asylum was, however, never the sole institutional receptacle. During the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth, there had been a considerable growth of provision in the private and voluntary sectors. Private madhouses had originally catered to the insane members of the wealthier classes, but some were increasingly providing for pauper lunatics funded by their parishes. Lunatic hospitals, financed by voluntary subscription, had been established in several major cities, and these also accepted some paupers among their clientele.
The dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation on ice growth rate during the freezing of sea water is investigated based on laboratory experiments and field observations in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The laboratory experiments were performed in a tank filled with sea water, with sea ice grown under calm conditions at various room temperatures ranging from −5°C to −20°C. In McMurdo Sound, the ice growth rate was monitored using thermistor probes for first-year landfast ice that grew to ∼2 m in thickness. Combining these datasets allows, for the first time, examination of fractionation at a wide range of growth rates from 0.8 × 10−7 to 9.3 × 10−7 m s−1. In the analysis a stagnant boundary-layer model is parameterized using these two independent datasets. As a result, the optimum values of equilibrium pure-ice fractionation factor and boundary-layer thickness are estimated. It is suggested that a regime shift may occur at a growth rate of ∼2.0 × 10−7 m s−1. A case study on sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk, where the growth rate is modeled by coupling the thermodynamic properties of the sea ice with meteorological data, demonstrates the utility of the fitted models.
The sorption processes for hydrogen and carbon dioxide are of considerable, and growing interest, particularly due to their relevance to a society that seeks to replace fossil fuels with a more sustainable energy source. X-ray diffraction allows a unique perspective for studying structural modifications and reaction mechanisms that occur when gas and solid interact. The fundamental challenge associated with such a study is that experiments are conducted while the solid sample is held under a gas pressure. To date in-situ high gas pressure studies of this nature have typically been undertaken at large-scale facilities such as synchrotrons or on dedicated laboratory instruments. Here we report high-pressure XRD studies carried out on a multi-purpose diffractometer. To demonstrate the suitability of the equipment, two model studies were carried out, firstly the reversible hydrogen cycling over LaNi5, and secondly the structural change that occurs during the decomposition of ammonia borane that results in the generation of hydrogen gas in the reaction chamber. The results have been finally compared to the literature. The study has been made possible by the combination of rapid X-ray detectors with a reaction chamber capable of withstanding gas pressures up to 100 bar and temperatures up to 900 °C.
We report the preparation and characterization of binary blend films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(1- ethyl-3-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (PVIm+TFSI-) derived from ionic liquid imidazolium monomers and doped with TFSI- salt. The potential utility of such materials in capacitive electronic devices and in proton exchange membrane fuel cells is of particular interest. Thin PVDF/ PVIm+TFSI- films were fabricated from solutions of dimethly formamide (DMF) by doctor blading. The nature of the PVDF crystalline polymorph and degree of crystallinity were evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of imidazolium polymer and thermal treatment. The morphology, thermal and mechanical characteristics and crystallinity of PVDF, in semicrystalline blend films was studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. In these materials, conditions such as choice of solvent, drying conditions, and thermal treatment affect the crystal phase, crystallite size, and degree of crystallinity of PVDF as well as the distribution of the minor component, the vinylimidazolium polymer. The polar beta phase of PVDF crystals dominates in as-cast films, while the non-polar alpha phase is observed after cooling from the melt. PVDF imparts mechanical strength and chemical stability to the composite films, and because of its high crystal melting point (Tm > 160 °C), serves to improve the high temperature stability of resulting films.
In 1967, all London medical schools were separate institutions based on their teaching hospitals, many of which had moved from their original central sites. Successive attempts at merger met resistance, but by 2000 there were just five undergraduate schools, all incorporated in large multi-faculty colleges with the exception of St George's.
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
In the north-west, Imperial College absorbed St Mary's Hospital in 1989 and in 1997 also took in Charing Cross and Westminster Hospitals (already merged in 1983).
Charing Cross Hospital
Early development of general practice teaching
Charing Cross Hospital medical school started in the mid-nineteenth century at the hospital building near The Strand, London. It was small, taking twenty to thirty new students annually. General practice teaching started in the 1950s when students were invited to stay with a general practitioner (usually an alumnus) for three weeks in their final year. Most practices were outside London (often rural), enabling students to experience the daily life of a general practitioner, including out of hours work and living with his family.
Charing Cross Hospital moved to Fulham in 1974, and the annual school intake increased to 120. The final-year general practice attachment expanded accordingly and the Dean, Professor Glenister, initiated plans for an undergraduate general practice teaching unit. The education committee of the north and west London faculty of the RCGP took great interest in the developments, especially as the GMC was threatening to remove accreditation from schools that did not have departments of general practice.
From July 2008 until May 2009, 240 client-owned pet dogs from seven veterinary clinics in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada participated in a study to determine pet-related management factors that may be associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. carriage in our study population of pet dogs was 22%, with 19% of the dogs positive for C. upsaliensis, and 3% positive for C. jejuni. A significant risk factor from multivariable logistic regression models for both Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis carriage was having homemade cooked food as the dog's diet or added to its diet, and a significant sparing factor for both models was treatment with antibiotics in the previous month. Increasing age of the dog decreased the odds of Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis carriage. Based on the high prevalence of Campylobacter, and specifically C. upsaliensis, further research concerning pet dogs as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis in humans is warranted.