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Results of previous studies on diet and gallbladder disease (GBD), defined as having gallstones or having had surgery for gallstones, have been inconsistent. This research examined patterns of food intake in Mexican Americans and their associations with GBD.
The study population included 4641 Mexican Americans aged 20–74 years who participated in the 1988–94 third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). GBD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Food intake patterns were identified by principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire responses. Component scores representing the level of intake of each pattern were categorized into quartiles, and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were estimated relative to the lowest quartile along with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
There were four distinct patterns in women (vegetable, high calorie, traditional, fruit) and three in men (vegetable, high calorie, traditional). After age adjustment, none were associated with GBD in women. However, men in the third (POR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.21–0.85) and fourth (POR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28–1.01) quartiles of the traditional intake pattern were half as likely to have GBD as those in the lowest quartile.
These findings add to a growing literature suggesting dietary intake patterns can provide potentially useful and relevant information on diet–disease associations. Nevertheless, methods to do so require further development and validation.
To determine the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary intake of folic acid and related nutrients such as methionine, cysteine and alcohol in the aetiology of breast cancer.
Population based case-control study.
Part of the European Community Multicentre Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer of the Breast (EURAMIC) in Berlin, Germany.
As part of the EURAMIC study, dietary intake data were collected in 43 postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer between 191 and 1992 in Berlin, Germany, and compared to 106 population-based controls.
Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for major risk factors of breast cancer but not for total energy intake showed a non-significant inverse association between a high intake of vegetables (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.48–1.20) and fruits (OR=0.74, 95% CI=0.48–1.15) and breast cancer. Once results were adjusted for total energy intake the associations became much weaker (vegetables: OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.51–1.46; fruits: OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.51–1.32). For all nutrients, the effect of energy adjustment was more profound and the inverse associations disappeared when results were adjusted for energy intake (total folate—not energy adjusted: OR=0.79, 95% CI=O.51–1.21; energy adjusted: OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.73–1.79; folate equivalents-not energy adjusted: OR=0.81, 95% CI= 0.53–1.23; energy adjusted: OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.78–1.74; methionine—not energy adjusted: OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.35–1.03; energy adjusted: OR=1.29, 95% CI=0.76–2.19; cysteine—not energy adjusted: OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.94; energy adjusted: OR=1.22, 95% CI=0.75–1.97). Alcohol intake was inversely associated with breast cancer in a non-significant way, possibly due to the relatively low alcohol intake of the study population.
The results of this study do not provide firm evidence that a high intake of fruits and vegetables, folic acid, methionine or cysteine reduces the risk of getting breast cancer.