The seed composition in the upper 15-cm soil horizon was determined and correlated with weed seedlings growing with fieldbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ‘Valley’). The total seed reservoir averaged 250 seed/kg of soil, and 19 species were represented. Seed occurring with the most frequency were redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. ♯ AMARE), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. ♯ CHEAL), and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. ♯ POROL). Seed from these plants accounted for over 85% of the seed found. The number of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. ♯ECHCG], buffalobur (Solanum rostratum Dunal ♯ SOLCU), common lambsquarters, common purslane, and common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. ♯ HELAN) seed in the soil was correlated with the number of plants growing in the field with fieldbeans. A correlation occurred between redroot pigweed, yellow foxtail [Setaria lutescens (Weigel.) Hubb. ♯ SETLU], and barnyardgrass growing in corn (Zea mays L.) fields in the fall of the year and plants growing in the field with fieldbeans the following year.