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Although higher dietary intake of MUFA has been shown to improve glycaemic control and lipid profiles, whether MUFA consumption from different sources is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. We aimed to prospectively assess the associations of plant-derived MUFA (P-MUFA) and animal-derived MUFA (A-MUFA) intakes with T2D risk in a nationwide oriental cohort. Overall, 15 022 Chinese adults, aged ≥20 years, from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997–2011) were prospectively followed up for a median of 14 years. Consumption of MUFA from plant and animal sources was assessed using 3-d 24-h recalls in each survey, and the cumulative average of intake was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of T2D according to quartiles of MUFA intake. P-MUFA were mainly consumed from cooked vegetable oils, fried bread sticks and rice, while A-MUFA were mainly consumed from pork, lard and eggs. Intake of P-MUFA was associated with a higher risk of T2D (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·50 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·90); Ptrend = 0·0013), whereas A-MUFA showed no significant association (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·84 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·20); Ptrend = 0·30). When further considering the cooking method of food sources, consumption of P-MUFA from fried foods was positively associated with T2D risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·60 (95 % CI 1·26, 2·02); Ptrend = 0·0006), whereas non-fried P-MUFA were not associated. Intake of MUFA from fried plant-based foods may elevate T2D risk among the Chinese population.
Qi and Chapman [‘Two closed forms for the Bernoulli polynomials’, J. Number Theory159 (2016), 89–100] gave a closed form expression for the Bernoulli polynomials as polynomials with coefficients involving Stirling numbers of the second kind. We extend the formula to the degenerate Bernoulli polynomials, replacing the Stirling numbers by degenerate Stirling numbers of the second kind.
Health system reform is considered a tough issue worldwide. Great efforts have been made toward health system building and strengthening. However, it is still unclear which health system is appropriate for different countries. This study aimed to systematically compare the characteristics of the establishment periods between eighty-eight counties of National Health Service (NHS) and Social Health Insurance (SHI).
Forty-eight NHS countries and forty SHI countries with data availability were selected. The establishment years of current health systems and other eighteen indicators in economics, society, population and health during establishment periods were collected. Comparison between NHS and SHI was conducted by descriptive analysis of every indicator.
Most NHS countries were established during the cold war, while SHI had been set up since the cold war ended. The median of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization rate and aging rate of SHI were USD 1535 in current dollars, 58.2 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively; compared with USD 1387, 41.2 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively of NHS. NHS countries had a smaller total population, lower mortality rate and elderly dependency ratio, while the birth rate and children's dependency ratio were higher. SHI countries showed a higher life expectancy and lower mortality rate in infants and children. NHS countries spent less in total health expenditure and a lower proportion of GDP. The median health expenditure per capita of SHI and NHS were USD 188 and USD 131 in current dollars, respectively. There was little difference among maternal mortality rates, and public and private health expenditure proportions.
NHS and SHI countries had different characteristics during the health system establishment periods. NHS was established earlier than SHI overall, so that SHI revealed higher levels in economic and social development. Health outcomes of NHS countries were slightly lower than SHI ones, while health expenditure was more in SHI countries. Specific social, economic, demographic and health conditions should be considered when countries are building their own health systems.
The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
The effects of minor Cu (0–0.29 wt%) and Mg (0–0.1 wt%) additions on the microstructure, electrical conductivity, mechanical, and creep properties of 8xxx aluminum conductor alloys were studied. The microstructure evolution was investigated using an optical microscope and the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The creep property was characterized by the primary creep strain and the minimum creep rate during creep deformation. The results demonstrated that additions of minor Cu and Mg reasonably improved the ultimate tensile strength but slightly reduced electrical conductivity. The addition of Cu remarkably decreased the primary creep strain but had a negligible effect on the minimum creep rate, leading to a beneficial effect on the short-term creep resistance but no advantage to the creep resistance under the long-term creep process. The minor addition of Mg greatly reduces both the primary creep strain and minimum creep rate, resulting in a significant and effective improvement in the creep resistance.
Our first aim in this paper is to deal with the maximum principle for subfunctions in an arbitrary unbounded domain. As an application, we next give a result concerning the classical Phragmén–Lindelöf theorem for subfunctions in a cone. For a subfunction defined in a cone that is dominated on the boundary by a certain function, we finally generalize the Phragmén–Lindelöf type theorem by making a generalized harmonic majorant of it.
Cryomilling combined with laser induction hybrid cladding (LIHC) was adopted to produce NiCrAlY coatings on Ni-based superalloy. The characteristics, oxidation resistance, and mechanical properties of the cryomilled NiCrAlY coatings by LIHC were investigated. By increasing the cryomilling time, the as-received spherical powder experienced a transition from flake-shaped to polygonal structure. The particle size increased firstly and then decreased. Moreover, increasing the cryomilling time induced the columnar growth in the NiCrAlY coatings. This in turn improved the oxidation resistance and the mechanical properties of the coatings. Especially, when the cryomilling time was increased to 15 h, the oxidation resistance of the coating at 1423 K was approximately nine times than that of GH4169 superalloy. The tensile strength of the cryomilled (15 h) coating increased to 1085 MPa and the ductility was 20.7%.
A congruent melting compound LiNaV2O6 has been synthesized by high-temperature solution reaction and it has been grown with sizes up to 11 × 6 × 2 mm3 by the top-seeded growth method for the first time. LiNaV2O6 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, with a = 10.184(2) Å, b = 9.067(2) Å, c = 5.8324(11) Å, β = 108.965(14)°. UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum of LiNaV2O6 shows that it has a wide transmittance range from 385 to 2500 nm. The ab initio calculations show that the birefringence of LiNaV2O6 is 0.136 at 589.3 nm. Therefore, LiNaV2O6 may be a new birefringent material. Based on the analysis of the relationship between crystal structure and linear optical properties, it is found that the large birefringence is attributed to the particular arrangement of V–O anionic groups.
The formation, growth and instability of a pair of counter-rotating vortices over a circular plate in the downstream of a thin fishing line were studied using particle image velocimetry and flow visualization. Initially, the vortex pair in an axisymmetric stagnation flow was small, but it grew steadily by accumulating the shear-layer vorticity of the wake before going through vortical instability. Two types of vortical development were observed in the present experiment. Type I was a common type of vortical development in an axisymmetric stagnation flow over a circular plate. Here, the circulation of the vortex pair increased linearly with time reflecting a constant flux of vorticity impinging on the plate wall. After the growth, the counter-rotating pair of vortices went through an antisymmetric deformation in the wall-normal direction while the vortex deformation was symmetric in the wall-parallel direction. This was remarkably similar to the short-wavelength elliptic instability of counter-rotating vortices in an open system. On the other hand, type II development of a vortex pair was a rare case, where the vortices grew for much longer duration than in type I cases. This initiated a breakdown of vortices before the residual vorticity moved away from the centre of the plate. It is considered that the disturbance due to vortical instability could be partially responsible for the unexpectedly high heat transfer rate in the stagnation region of bluff bodies that has been reported in the last half-century.
The decomposition mechanism of block copolymer templates inside as-synthesized mesostructured solids has been systematically studied using solid-state 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and high-vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It is shown that there exists hydrogen-bonding interaction between silanols and block copolymers at the inorganic–organic interface in the self-assembled as-synthesized mesostructured solids, which plays an important role in protecting the surfactants against decomposition during the high-temperature hydrothermal treatment process. Increasing silanol concentration can enhance the hydrogen-bonding interaction and thus shows better “protection” effect. Moreover, the thermal decomposition of the block copolymer in as-synthesized mesostructured solids in air commences at higher temperatures compared with that in acidic solution or in air, providing further evidence in support of the silanol protection mechanism.
In this paper, based on the practice of manganese production in China, a preliminary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the electrolytic manganese industry is provided, and an analysis of its environmental impact is carried out. A comparison is made between China and South Africa. By comparison, it can be seen that the environmental impact of the manganese production industry in China is more serious. New process technology can be expected to save energy and clean up production.
Multispectral analysis combined with the Periodic Acid-Schiff method was used to investigate cytological features of insoluble polysaccharides and changes in total insoluble polysaccharide content (TPC) during pollen development in rice, including four cytoplasmic male sterility lines (MSLs) and their corresponding fertility-maintaining lines (FMLs). The multispectral curves of the relative transmittance value (RTV) and the images of developing pollen cells were obtained across a range of successive wavelengths (400–720 nm). A minimum RTV was found near 550 nm indicating an absorption peak of the TPC. Thus, the TPC was measured using the RTV of 550 nm. In the four FMLs, the minimum TPC of developing pollen cells occurred at the late microspore stage, while the maximum TPC occurred at the mature pollen grain stage. The TPC levels of pollen cells were significantly higher in the four FMLs than in their corresponding MSLs during and after pollen abortion. Notably, a steep decrease of multispectral curves at 420 nm appeared before the occurrence of abortion, implying a marker associated with pollen abortion in rice. Our results will be helpful for exploring the changes in TPC during pollen ontogenesis in rice and provide a novel method for the study of bio-macromolecules.
In this work, various ZnO nanostructures were synthesized and a detailed study on the effect of different process parameters such as temperature, carrier gas flow, inter-electrode spacing, gas concentration and material properties on gas sensitivity was conducted. Initial ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple solution chemical process and characterized by Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET) Sorptometer to demonstrate the morphology and surface area respectively. Sensitivity of nano-platelets and porous films was measured for different concentrations of the analytes (H2, CO). High response was observed at room temperature for H2 gas with sensitivities in excess 80% for 60ppm and about 55% for 80ppm of H2 gas at room temperature were observed for the nano-platelets and the porous films respectively with short response and recovery times of about 200 seconds. The sensitivity of the nano-platelets to CO gas was also measured and found to be about near 90% for 80 ppm CO at operating temperatures of 200 °C.
GP41, a major glycoprotein, identified in the occlusion-derived virions (ODV) of baculoviruses, is required for the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus in the pathway of budded virion (BV) synthesis. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the open reading frame (ORF) of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) gp41 gene was obtained from SpltMNPV genomic DNA. The PCR product was cloned into pMD18-T vector to get the recombinant plasmid (pT-gp41). The gp41 gene was recombined in vitro with prokaryotic expression vector pQE30 and transformed into Escherichia coli M15 [pREP4]. The M15 [pREP4] strain, containing gp41 recombinant plasmid, expressed a 37.9 kDa 6×His-tag fusion protein after induction with 1 mmol/l isopropylthio-β-d-galactoside (IPTG). The fusion protein was purified with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni–NTA) resin column and used as the immunogen to raise GP41-specific antibody. Western blotting analysis indicated that the antibody was suitable to be used for further analysis of GP41 protein.
The development of optical technologies requires the fabrication of reliable optical switching and limiting devices. Optical switches modulate the transmission or reflection of incident light, while optical limiters serve to limit transmission to prevent the transmitted light intensity from exceeding a defined level. A major application of optical limiters is to protect delicate sensors.
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