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Expressive writing can enhance cognitive processing and improve stress regulation. Particularly, the use of cognitive words (i.e., insightful and causal words) in writing may be associated with the process of meaning making and promotion of post-traumatic growth (PTG). The aim of the present study was to determine how expressive writing and the use of causal and insightful cognitive words influenced meaning making and PTG during writing. In total, 52 traumatized university students were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two writing conditions involving either an expressive writing task or a neutral writing task. The results showed that participants who engaged in expressive (vs. neutral) writing showed higher scores on the presence of meaning and PTG in the post-writing, self-report questionnaires. Moreover, writing task (expressive or neutral) and frequency of causal and insightful cognitive words were both significant predictors of meaning, which in turn led to high levels of PTG. In conclusion, the use of causal and insightful words might be a fundamental cognitive process for developing meaning in writing, which is essential for our further understanding of meaning making and PTG.
Soil moisture is a key factor in the ecohydrological cycle in water-limited ecosystems, and it integrates the effects of climate, soil, and vegetation. The water balance and the hydrological cycle are significantly important for vegetation restoration in water-limited regions, and these dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study, the soil moisture and water balance were modelled with the stochastic soil water balance model in the Loess Plateau, China. This model was verified by monitoring soil moisture data of black locust plantations in the Yangjuangou catchment in the Loess Plateau. The influences of a rainfall regime change on soil moisture and water balance were also explored. Three meteorological stations were selected (Yulin, Yan'an, and Luochuan) along the precipitation gradient to detect the effects of rainfall spatial variability on the soil moisture and water balance. The results showed that soil moisture tended to be more frequent at low levels with decreasing precipitation, and the ratio of evapotranspiration under stress in response to rainfall also changed from 74.0% in Yulin to 52.3% in Luochuan. In addition, the effects of a temporal change in rainfall regime on soil moisture and water balance were explored at Yan'an. The soil moisture probability density function moved to high soil moisture in the wet period compared to the dry period of Yan'an, and the evapotranspiration under stress increased from 59.5% to 72% from the wet period to the dry period. The results of this study prove the applicability of the stochastic model in the Loess Plateau and reveal its potential for guiding the vegetation restoration in the next stage.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
In a model where investors disagree about the fundamentals of two stocks, the state-price density depends on investor disagreements for both stocks, especially the larger stock. This implies that disagreement among investors in a large firm has a spillover effect on the pricing of other stocks owned by these investors. The pricing effects of investor disagreements crucially depend on the average belief biases. Empirical findings support the novel model prediction of a disagreement spillover effect and help reconcile some mixed evidence in the literature.
A novel synthetic air data estimation method without using air data sensors is presented, and the method only relies on the information from the Navigation System (NS) and Flight Control System (FCS). The aircraft's aerodynamic model is also required to make a connection between the FCS control parameters and the NS measurements. The airspeed, angle of attack and sideslip, angular velocity and wind speed are defined as state vectors, and state equations are established through the aircraft's aerodynamic model and dynamics. Linear velocity and angular velocity provided by the navigation system are considered as the measurement vector. To deal with variable wind fields, a novel Initialised Three-step Extended Kalman Filter (ITEKF), which considers the wind speed as an unknown input, is developed to track the variation of wind speed. Simulation results based on a Generic Hypersonic Vehicle (GHV) model are presented and compared with an existing method. Factors affecting the method's accuracy include the navigation system accuracy and the aerodynamic model error, are also discussed.
In this paper, a novel Strong Tracking Sigma-Point Predictive Variable Structure Filter (ST-SP-PVSF) is presented as a further development of the Adaptive Predictive Variable Structure Filter (APVSF) for attitude synchronisation during Satellite Formation Flying (SFF). First, the sequence orthogonal principle is adopted to enhance the robustness of the APVSF for any nonlinear system with uncertain model errors. Then, sigma-point sampling strategies (such as unscented transfer, cubature rule and Stirling's polynomial interpolation) are introduced to extend the APVSF with the ability to capture the second central moment's information on the model errors to update the system model with higher precision. The new methodology has advantages in dealing with the various types of uncertainties or model errors compared with the APVSF. In addition, it does not need to choose the limit boundary layer ψlim it for system estimation, which reduces the sensitivity to the initial parameters and improves its adaptive ability over the APVSF. Simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is more suitable for attitude synchronisation estimation of the SFF system.
The effect of specimen thickness on fracture toughness and fracture mechanism was investigated in bulk columnar-grained Cu with preferentially oriented nanoscale growth twins. Below a critical specimen thickness of ∼1.0 mm, plane stress state prevailed ahead of the crack tip and the fracture initiation toughness JC decreased with decreasing thickness. Above the critical thickness, JC decreased with increasing thickness until approaching an intrinsic thickness-independent value when the crack front was mainly under plane strain condition. Under plane strain condition, threading dislocations were majorly activated to glide along the nanotwin channels and to produce severe stress concentrations when they piled-up against grain boundaries (GBs). As a result, intergranular cracking mediated the failure of the nanotwinned Cu. On the contrary, under plane stress condition, dislocations slipping-transfer across twin boundaries (TBs) or partial dislocations gliding at TBs were activated to accommodate the plastic deformation. Consequently, stress intensification at GBs was plastically relaxed through enhanced detwinning and shear banding, which suppressed the intergranular fracture and promoted transgranular shear fracture.
The degradation, alteration and depletion of riparian habitats caused by river regulation are among critical conservation concerns. Aquatic and riparian habitats support not only river-dwelling biota such as macroinvertebrates and fish, but also waterbirds, the top predators in the aquatic food web. Despite the intimate relationships between fish and waterbirds, the two groups are often investigated separately. Using an integrative approach, we examined the effects of dams on fish and scaly-sided merganser (Mergus squamatus), an endangered, iconic riverine species, where the lack of knowledge about habitat preferences greatly hampers long-term conservation efforts. Our analysis quantified three causal links: (1) water depth had direct, comparable, negative effects on both fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.31 and –0.46, respectively; (2) river landscape heterogeneity directly and positively affected fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are 0.63 and 0.19, respectively; and (3) depth and river landscape also exerted indirect effects on waterbirds through their impacts on fish abundance, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.15 and 0.28, respectively. Our findings could contribute to the rational spatial planning and sustainable operation of dams in that maintaining instream habitat availability and heterogeneity would benefit the whole riverine ecosystem.
China makes a unique and vital contribution to maintaining global and regional waterbird diversity and conservation. Despite considerable historical conservation efforts, the continued loss of waterbird diversity and abundance necessitates a contemporary review of Chinese sites of conservation significance. The Ecological Protection Red Line (EPRL) was proposed by China’s Central Government in 2013 to protect areas providing crucial ecosystem services and provides the opportunity for such a review to enhance waterbird conservation in China. By incorporating various sources of data, surveys and information, we identified a suite of sites of waterbird conservation significance in China, following the Ramsar Site Criteria/Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) Criteria. In total, we identified 422 sites, of which the existing 286 IBA sites formed the basis of the site safeguard network. Altogether, these sites of waterbird conservation significance constitute over 727,000 km2 (7.6% of China’s land surface). Over half of the area of these sites is outside China’s national nature reserves, thus confirming the importance and urgency of including them in the EPRL for the effective conservation of waterbird sites. We suggest that this assessment of sites of waterbird importance offers a useful model to apply to other taxa, such as terrestrial birds and mammals.
Aerial photography was conducted in the high Arctic Ocean during a Chinese research expedition in summer 2010. By partitioning the images into three distinct surface categories (sea ice/snow, water and melt ponds), the areal fraction of each category, ice concentration and the size and geometry of individual melt ponds, are determined with high-spatial resolution. The ice concentration and melt pond coverage have large spatial deviations between flights and even between images from the marginal ice zone to the pack ice zone in the central Arctic. Ice concentration and pond coverage over high Arctic (from 84°N to north) was ~75% and ~6.8%, respectively, providing ‘ground truth’ for the unusual transpolar reduction strip of ice indicated concurrently by AMSR-E data and for the regions (north of 88°N) where no passive microwave sensors can cover. Melt pond size and shape distributions are examined in terms of pond area (S), perimeter (P), mean caliper dimension (MCD) (L), roundness (R), convex degree (C), the ratio of P/S and fractal dimension (D). Power-law relationships are developed between pond size and number. Some general trends in geometric metrics are identified as a function of pond area including R, C, P/S and D. The scale separation of pond complexity is demonstrated by analyzing area-perimeter data. The results will potentially help the modelling of melt pond evolution and the determination of heterogeneity of under-ice transmitted light fields.
In this paper, a novel Predictive Variable Structure Filter (PVSF) and its adaptive deformation (APVSF) are presented for attitude synchronisation during Satellite Formation Flying (SFF). The PVSF is proposed based on the variable structure control concept and applied to any nonlinear system with model errors. The model errors in the PVSF need not satisfy the assumption of Gaussian white noise; therefore, it has advantages in dealing with various kinds of uncertainties, parameter variations or noises. Then, the APVSF is also presented to adjust the smoothing boundary layer of PVSF by minimising the Mean-Square Error (MSE). Simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and stability of the proposed methodologies for the attitude synchronisation estimation of the SFF system.
The present study was performed to identify the genotype of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family and investigate the clinicopathogenic characteristics and prognostic features of relevant genetic abnormalities. Target sequence capture sequencing was performed to screen for pathogenic alleles in a 32-year-old female patient (proband). Sanger sequencing was carried out to verify the results. Sanger sequencing was also performed on other family members to identify allele carriers. A survival analysis was carried out using published literature and our findings. We found that the proband and her son harboured a Gly716Arg sequence variant of the β-myosin heavy chain. Neither the proband’s father nor the mother were carriers of this sequence variant; thus, the mutation was classified as “de novo”. Further survival analysis revealed that female patients appear to have a longer life expectancy compared with males. Our study may provide an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Glacier change has been recognized as an important climate variable due to its sensitive response to climate change. Although there are a large number of glaciers distributed over the southeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, the region is poorly represented in glacier databases due to seasonal snow cover and frequent cloud cover. Here, we present an improved glacier inventory for this region by combining Landsat observations acquired over 2011–13 (Landsat 8/OLI and Landsat TM/ETM+), coherence images from Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM. We present a semi-automated scheme for integrating observations from multi-temporal Landsat scenes to mitigate cloud obscuration. Further, the clean-ice observations, together with coherence information, slope constraints, vegetation cover and water classification information extracted from the Landsat scenes, are integrated to determine the debris-covered glacier area. After manual editing, we derive a new glacier inventory containing 6892 glaciers >0.02 km2, covering a total area of 6566 ± 197 km2. This new glacier inventory indicates gross overestimation in glacier area (over 30%) in previously published glacier inventories, and reveals various spatial characteristics of glaciers in the region. Our inventory can be used as a baseline dataset for future studies including glacier change assessment.
The remarkable properties of nanotwinned (NT) face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals arise directly from twin boundaries, the structures of which can be initially determined by growth twinning during the deposition process. Understanding the synthesis process and its relation to the resulting microstructure, and ultimately to material properties, is key to understanding and utilizing these materials. This article presents recent studies on electrodeposition and sputtering methods that produce a high density of nanoscale growth twins in fcc metals. Nanoscale growth twins tend to form spontaneously in monolithic and alloyed fcc metals with lower stacking-fault energies, while engineered approaches are necessary for fcc metals with higher stacking-fault energies. Growth defects and other microstructural features that influence nanotwin behavior and stability are introduced here, and future challenges in fabricating NT materials are highlighted.
A 100-J-level Nd:glass laser system in nanosecond-scale pulse width has been constructed to perform as a standard source of high-fluence-laser science experiments. The laser system, operating with typical pulse durations of 3–5 ns and beam diameter 60 mm, employs a sequence of successive rod amplifiers to achieve 100-J-level energy at 1053 nm at 3 ns. The frequency conversion can provide energy of 50-J level at 351 nm. In addition to the high stability of the energy output, the most valuable of the laser system is the high spatiotemporal beam quality of the output, which contains the uniform square pulse waveform, the uniform flat-top spatial fluence distribution and the uniform flat-top wavefront.
We investigate the entrainment of liquid films on a partially wetting plate vertically withdrawn from a reservoir of viscous liquid using a combination of diffuse-interface numerical simulation and lubrication analysis. So far available theoretical investigations were commonly conducted by focusing on separate parameter regions, and a complete description of the flow regimes with increasing plate speed is still missing. By solving the full Stokes equations, we present a complete scenario of film transition in the presence of moving contact line. With increasing plate speed, we identify numerically four successive flow regimes in terms of the interfacial morphologies: (1) a stationary meniscus, (2) a speed-independent thick film connected to the liquid bath through a stationary dimple, (3) coexistence of a thick film and the classical Landau–Levich–Derjaguin (LLD) film connected by a propagating capillary shock and (4) a film with a monotonically varying thickness. The characteristics of the film profiles in different regions of the interfaces are analysed with lubrication theory as applicable, and satisfactory agreements with the numerical results are obtained. In particular, we confirm that the onset of film deposition occurs at a vanishing apparent contact angle, consistent with the predictions of lubrication theory. Numerical results suggest that the critical capillary number for the onset of film deposition is smaller than that for the onset of LLD film despite the fact that it is higher than the experimentally observed one, showing that the thick film can be realized in the two-dimensional model. We also demonstrated that the LLD film is triggered by the bifurcation of the stationary dimple, which is found to admit multiple branches of stable and unstable solutions.
Wideband dipole antennas are proposed using the multi-mode resonance concept. By symmetrically introducing one-pair or two-pair of stubs at the nulls of current distribution of the second odd-order mode, two radiation modes are excited in a single, center-fed dipole resonator. Using these stubs, the second odd-order mode gradually moves down to its first counterpart, resulting to achieve a wideband radiation with two resonances. Prototype antennas are then fabricated to experimentally validate the design approach. Compared with a reference dipole with a bandwidth of 17%, the proposed dipole's bandwidth can be effectively increased to 49.7%.