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Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.
We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
In a model where investors disagree about the fundamentals of two stocks, the state-price density depends on investor disagreements for both stocks, especially the larger stock. This implies that disagreement among investors in a large firm has a spillover effect on the pricing of other stocks owned by these investors. The pricing effects of investor disagreements crucially depend on the average belief biases. Empirical findings support the novel model prediction of a disagreement spillover effect and help reconcile some mixed evidence in the literature.
The accounting information of a firm is analogous to the characteristics of an organism that contain biological information that influences decisions; such characteristics result from organizational routines (genes). Organizational routines result from organizational learning, and learning from an associated company is an efficient approach for a new venture to establish routines. The study results revealed that the subsidiaries inherited routines from the parent companies related to financial ratios, so we suggest that people should judge the adequacy of a firm’s financial situation by not only referring to the standard of its industry but also to its parent company.
In this paper, a novel Strong Tracking Sigma-Point Predictive Variable Structure Filter (ST-SP-PVSF) is presented as a further development of the Adaptive Predictive Variable Structure Filter (APVSF) for attitude synchronisation during Satellite Formation Flying (SFF). First, the sequence orthogonal principle is adopted to enhance the robustness of the APVSF for any nonlinear system with uncertain model errors. Then, sigma-point sampling strategies (such as unscented transfer, cubature rule and Stirling's polynomial interpolation) are introduced to extend the APVSF with the ability to capture the second central moment's information on the model errors to update the system model with higher precision. The new methodology has advantages in dealing with the various types of uncertainties or model errors compared with the APVSF. In addition, it does not need to choose the limit boundary layer ψlim it for system estimation, which reduces the sensitivity to the initial parameters and improves its adaptive ability over the APVSF. Simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is more suitable for attitude synchronisation estimation of the SFF system.
Since 2010, Jankowski’s Bunting Emberiza jankowskii has been listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, because no comprehensive surveys had been conducted, it was not known whether undiscovered populations existed elsewhere, so the population status of the species could not be assessed accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the breeding distribution and population size of Jankowski’s Bunting in China. Fifty sites in Inner Mongolia, and Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Hebei Provinces were surveyed to locate suitable habitat and breeding populations of Jankowski’s Bunting. The surveyed sites included historical breeding distribution areas, wintering sites, and regions adjacent to historical breeding distribution areas. We confirmed that Jankowski’s Bunting has disappeared from most of its former breeding distributions, with the exceptions of Dagang, Xiergen and Tumiji. Additionally, 13 new breeding sites were discovered in Inner Mongolia. All currently known populations breed in Mongolian steppe-vegetation zones, with shrubs dominated by the natural Siberian apricot Prunus sibirica, indicating that this type of habitat is crucial for the survival of the species. Based on remote sensing, the suitable breeding habitat for Jankowski’s Bunting is estimated to be approximately 280 km2. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting could range between 9,800 and 12,500 individuals, which is much higher than the numbers estimated in previous reports that were based on partial surveys. The suitable habitat remaining in Inner Mongolia would highly benefit from the implementation of the National Key Public Forest Protection Project. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting is larger than previously estimated, but it is still threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, and our survey results reinforce the need for more research. The status of Jankowski’s Bunting in China still meets the IUCN criteria B2ab for an ‘Endangered’ species.
In this paper, a novel Predictive Variable Structure Filter (PVSF) and its adaptive deformation (APVSF) are presented for attitude synchronisation during Satellite Formation Flying (SFF). The PVSF is proposed based on the variable structure control concept and applied to any nonlinear system with model errors. The model errors in the PVSF need not satisfy the assumption of Gaussian white noise; therefore, it has advantages in dealing with various kinds of uncertainties, parameter variations or noises. Then, the APVSF is also presented to adjust the smoothing boundary layer of PVSF by minimising the Mean-Square Error (MSE). Simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and stability of the proposed methodologies for the attitude synchronisation estimation of the SFF system.
We investigated the boron isotopic composition in loess–paleosol sequences in five different profiles in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Three possible boron sources are identified: atmospheric input, carbonates, and weathered silicate rocks. Variations of [Sr], [B], δ11B and the magnetic susceptibility correlate well with the pedogenetic intensity in three out of the five studied profiles, where pedogenesis under a cold–dry climate indicates lower δ11B, lower [B], lower magnetic susceptibility and higher [Sr] values. Exceptions to the variations between the δ11B and other known proxies were observed in arenaceous soils and the Red Clay sequence: the former suggested that vertical redistribution probably occurred with the boron migration, and the latter indicated an unknown mechanism of susceptibility enhancement. A better correlation between the δ11B and magnetic susceptibility and the quantitative estimation of boron budget from each source confirms the influence of paleoenvironmental changes on boron geochemical cycle. Significant positive correlations in Sr/Ca vs. B/Ca and Mg/Ca vs. B/Ca reflect consistent enrichment behavior of those mobile elements into calcium carbonate. The preliminary results imply that boron isotopic compositions in soils can be a potential geochemical proxy to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes in loess–paleosol sequences.
Suction casting (SC) and centrifugal casting (CC) are two common special casting processes. The influences of SC and CC on the microstructural development of Cu–10Al–4Fe–4Ni aluminum bronzes were investigated with continuous cooling method. The results indicate that α, β′, KII, and KIII phases are observed in the quasicast microstructure via the SC process with the precipitation sequence of KII → α → KIII. Additionally, KI and KIV are observed in the quasicast microstructure via the CC process with the precipitation sequence of α + KⅠ → KII → KIV → KIII. Phase initial precipitation temperatures of the CC process are higher than that of the SC process, especially for α phase. As the quenching temperature decreases, the hardness of both alloys shows a rapid decline trend and finally reaches a steady state. It is found that the eutectoid decomposition (β → α + KIII) barely affects the hardness of the alloys.
In Northeast China, large volumes of Mesozoic–Cenozoic igneous rocks have developed as a result of long-lasting subduction of the palaeo-Pacific and Pacific plates beneath the eastern Eurasian continent. Previous studies have convincingly confirmed the presence of depleted mantle (DM), FOcal ZOne (FOZO) mantle and enriched mantle 1 (EM1) end-members; the enriched mantle 2 (EM2) end-member is probably present but it has been poorly constrained. The Late Cretaceous Shuangyashan suite, comprising a monzogabbro and diorite–porphyrite stocks and their cumulate hornblendite enclaves, from the Shuangyashan coal basin, Northeast China, is characterized by high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.70922–0.71095) and low initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.51221–0.51238) at 98 Ma. Their occurrence demonstrates that EM2 is present in the lithospheric mantle of Northeast China and its formation may be related to recycled continental material in a subduction setting.
SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ polynary complex nanobelts with long-persisting phosphorescence were synthesized via a facile but efficient combustion method followed by a postannealing reaction at temperature above 900 °C. All the samples emit greenish-yellow light from the d-f transition of Eu2+, and moreover, their wavelength redshifts with increasing calcination temperature since the increase in crystal size and crystalline quality causes a large average optical path and high crystal symmetry, respectively. The decay constant of the sample calcined at low temperature is smaller than that of the one annealed at high temperature owing to the presence of higher densities and depths of electron traps donated by host defects, and the initial brightness of the sample calcined at low temperature is relatively low owing to the small volume fraction from relatively low crystallinity.
Lobopodians, which diversified and flourished in the Cambrian seas, have long drawn much attention in that not only their extant close relatives, onychophorans and tardigrades, but euarthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda) may have been deeply rooted in stem-group lobopodians. Antennacanthopodia gracilis new genus and species is described and interpreted here as an “unarmoured” lobopodian from the Chengjiang fossil Lagerstätte (Early Cambrian, —520 Ma), Yunnan, southwestern China. This animal shares with other known Cambrian lobopodians such plesiomorphies (primitive characters) as onychophoran-like overall appearance; a metamerically segmented body covered by slightly sclerotized cuticle, and paired, unjointed lobopodal legs. Antennacanthopodia is also featured by a pair of frontal antennae, potential ocellus-like lateral visual organs, second antennae, a straight, voluminous midgut, diminutive spines arrayed on the leg and the trunk, well-developed leg musculature, highly sclerotized terminal leg pads, and presumptively a pair of posteriormost appendicules. This new taxon, with innovative characters (autapomorphies), furthers our understanding of early lobopodian diversification. Antennacanthopodia is considered closely allied to extant Onychophora based on considerable anatomical similarities. Taken together its “two-segmented” cephalization and appendage-bearing “ocular segment”, this new form may shed some new light on the arthropod groundplan.
Experiments of the return current post installed X-pinches were carried out on the 1-MA “QiangGuang-1” facility with the purpose of understanding X-pinch characteristics under this setup and establishing X-pinch backlighting diagnostics for the wire-array Z-pinches. Different wire-array loads along with the two-wire 30 µm Mo X-pinch backlighter were tested. The X-pinches emit the X-ray radiation with the burst time variation of ± 4 ns and the bright spot size of ~30 µm. X-ray backlighting shadowgraphy images of the over-mass and radiation-suppressed Z-pinch wire array were obtained.
Nonvolatile nanoscale memories with ultra-long retention times have been demonstrated for both binary and multilevel applications. These devices were based on nanowires functionalized with a self- assembled monolayer of redox active molecular wires, where the bit was represented by the charge stored in the redox molecules and the nanowire conductance was used as the readout. Our devices exhibited reliable operation, on/off ratios ∼ 104 and retention times ∼ one month, one of the longest retention times ever achieved with nanoscale devices. These devices were further tailored for multilevel data storage with appreciable noise margins, representing a new concept for functional devices. Our work clearly demonstrates the potential of combining nanowires and molecular wires for superior performance.
Welded joints of P92 steel subjected to creep testing at 650 °C and 70 MPa were investigated. Type IV cracking was observed in the fine-grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ) of the welded joints by optical microscopy. It was found that with varying creep times, the number of creep voids increased at an accelerating rate and the maximum number of voids was formed in the FGHAZ. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that precipitates were formed in the interior of creep voids, suggesting that the nucleation of the creep voids is related to the precipitates. These creep voids then connected with each other, isolated the grain from the matrix, and formed zigzag microcracks, leading to type IV cracking. New coarse carbides—the Laves phase and Cr7C3—were precipitated during creep. These carbides can deteriorate the creep strength and stimulate the nucleation of creep voids in the FGHAZ.
The electrical characteristics of thin gate dielectrics prepared by low temperature (850 °C) two-step N20 nitridation (LTN) process are presented. The gate oxides were grown by wet oxidation at 800 °C and then annealed in N2O at 850 °C. The oxide with N2O anneal, even for low temperature (850 °C), had nitrogen incorporation at oxide/silicon interface. The charge trapping phenomena and interface-state generation (ΔDitm) induced by constant current stressing were reduced and charge-to-breakdown (Qbd) under constant current stressing was increased. This LTN oxynitride was used as gate dielectric for N-channel MOSFET, whose hot-canrier immunity was shown improved and reverse short channel effect (RSCE) was suppressed.