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Double-layer absorbers have recently been extensively studied because single-layer absorbers can hardly meet the requirements of advanced absorbing materials. However, determining how to couple the matching and absorption layers remains a challenge. In the present work, we applied the hydrothermal method to prepare an ultrasmall Fe3O4 nanoparticle and a hierarchical MXene/Fe3O4 composite and then studied the microwave attenuation capabilities of single- and double-layer absorbers containing these two materials with different thicknesses. Absorbers with well-coupled layers showed improved absorption performance on account of the excellent impedance matching behavior of the Fe3O4 layer and the high microwave attenuation capability of the MXene/Fe3O4 layer. When the thickness of the matching layer filled with Fe3O4 was 0.1 mm and that of the absorption layer filled with MXene/Fe3O4 was 1.9 mm, a maximum reflection loss of −48.7 dB was achieved at 9.9 GHz. More importantly, when the thicknesses of the matching and absorption layers were 0.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively, the effective bandwidth was nearly 3.9 GHz. The double-layer absorbers with enhanced absorption properties may be regarded as a new generation of materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.
The South Altyn Orogenic Belt (SAOB) is one of the most important orogenic belts in NW China, consisting of the South Altyn Continental Block and the Apa–Mangya Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. However, its Palaeozoic tectonic evolution is still controversial. Here, we present petrological, geochemical, zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for the Mangya plutons with the aim of establishing the Palaeozoic tectonic evolution. We divide the Early Palaeozoic magmatism in the Apa–Mangya Ophiolitic Mélange Belt into four episodes and propose a plate tectonic model for the formation of these rocks. During 511–494 Ma, the South Altyn Ocean (SAO) was in a spreading stage, and some shoshonite series, I-type granitic rocks were generated. From 484 to 458 Ma, the oceanic crust of the SAO subducted northward, accompanied by large-scale magmatic events resulting in the generation of vast high-K calc-alkaline series, I-type granitic rocks. During 450–433 Ma, the SAO closed, and break-off of the subducted oceanic slab occurred, with the generation of some high-K calc-alkaline series, I–S transitional type granites. The SAOB was in post-orogenic extensional environment from 419 to 404 Ma, and many A-type granites were generated.
Maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) is the use of a machine to filter wastes, salts and fluid from blood for at least 3 months to prolong the life of patients with advanced kidney failure. Although low dietary energy intake (DEI) has been observed in MHD patients, few studies have related DEI to the risk of mortality. To explore this relationship, a study included 1039 MHD patients from eight centres was conducted. DEI was assessed by three 24-h diet recalls and was normalised to ideal body weight (IBW). All-cause mortality and CVD mortality were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. During a median follow-up of 28 months, a U-shaped relationship was observed between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality. The risk of all-cause mortality decreased significantly with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <167·4 kJ/kg IBW per d (hazard ratio (HR) 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·00) and increased significantly with the increase of DEI in those with DEI ≥167·4 kJ/kg IBW per d (HR 1·12; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·20). Similarly, the risk of CVD mortality decreased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <152·7 kJ/kg IBW per d (HR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and increased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI ≥152·7 kJ/kg IBW per d (HR 1·11; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·18). In summary, there was a U-shaped association between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality, with a turning point at about 167·4 and 152·7 kJ/kg IBW per d, respectively, in MHD patients.
We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated.
The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations.
A comprehensive echocardiogram – standard two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography – and electrocardiogram were obtained for members in this family.
As previously reported, four missense mutations – MYH7-H1717Q, KCNQ1-R190W, MYLK2-K324E, and TMEM70-I147T – were identified in this family. The MYH7-H1717Q mutation carriers had significantly increased left ventricular mass indices, elevated E/e’ ratio, deteriorated global longitudinal stain, but enhanced global circumferential and radial strain compared with those in non-mutation patients (all p<0.05). The KCNQ1-R190W carriers showed significantly prolonged QTc intervals, and the MYLK2-K324E mutation carriers showed inverted T-waves (both p<0.05). However, the TMEM70-I147T mutation carriers had similar echocardiography and electrocardiographic data as non-mutation patients.
Three of the identified four mutations had potential pathogenic effects in this family: MYH7-H1717Q was associated with increased left ventricular thickness, elevated left ventricular filling pressure, and altered myocardial deformation; KCNQ1-R190W and MYLK2-K324E mutations were correlated with electrocardiographic abnormalities reflected in long QT phenotype and inverted T-waves, respectively.
Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that retinal detachment (RD) subjects were associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activities; however, whether the altered interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) occurred in RD patients remains unknown. The current study tried to explore the alternations of interhemispheric FC of the whole brain in unilateral RD patients using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method and their connections to clinical features. Methods: We recruited 30 patients with RD (16 males and 14 females) and 30 healthy controls (HCs) (16 males and 14 females) whose age and sex were closely matched. All subjects underwent the rs-fMRI scans. The VMHC method was applied to directly assess the hemispheres’ functional interaction. The VMHC in these brain areas, which could be used as biomarkers to differentiate RD from HC, was identified by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The relations between these patients’ clinical features and their mean VMHC signal values in multiple brain regions were calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: RD patients had significantly lower VMHC values than HCs in the bilateral occipital lobe (Brodmann areas, BA 18), bilateral superior temporal gyrus (BA 39), and bilateral cuneus (BA 19). Moreover, the mean VMHC signal values of the bilateral cuneus were in positive correlation with the duration of the RD (r = 0.446, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Our results provided an evidence of disturbed interhemispheric FC in the visual area occurred in RD patients, which might provide some useful information to understand the neural mechanism of RD patients with acute vision loss. Furthermore, the VMHC values might indicate the progress of the RD.
The neuropsychological origins of negative syndrome of schizophrenia remain elusive. Evidence from behavioural studies, which utilised emotion-inducing pictures to elicit motivated behaviour generally reported that that schizophrenia patients experienced similar affective experience as healthy individuals but failed to translate emotional salience to motivated behaviour, a phenomenon called emotion–behaviour decoupling. However, a few studies have examined emotion–behaviour decoupling in non-psychotic high-risk populations, who are relatively unaffected by medication effects.
In this study, we examined the nature and extent of emotion–behaviour decoupling in in three independent samples (65 schizophrenia patients v. 63 controls; 40 unaffected relatives v. 45 controls; and 32 individuals with social anhedonia v. 32 controls). We administered an experimental task to examine their affective experience and its coupling with behaviour, using emotion-inducing slides, and allowed participants to alter stimulus exposure using button-pressing to seek pleasure or avoid aversion.
Schizophrenia patients reported similar affective experiences as their controls, while their unaffected relatives and individuals with high levels of social anhedonia exhibited attenuated affective experiences, in particular in the arousal aspect. Compared with their respective control groups, all of the three groups showed emotion–behaviour decoupling.
Our findings support that both genetically and behaviourally high-risk groups exhibit emotion–behaviour decoupling. The familial association apparently supports its role as a putative trait marker for schizophrenia.
In late 2010, the online services giant Google released a tool for public use called the Google Books Ngram Viewer. The Ngram viewer was a Web interface that enabled virtually anyone with an Internet connection to run frequency searches of character strings in a corpus of more than 5.2 million digitized books, or roughly 500 billion words, published between the sixteenth and twenty-first centuries. With these massive corpora at hand, a new branch of humanistic research has been established, dubbed “culturomics” (Michel et al., 2011). Culturomics enables investigators to examine changes over time reflected in print material associated with the lexicon being used and can offer evidence of social patterns and orientations within a language community. For example, one could use the Ngram viewer to chart how often the word “slavery” was printed over time and see that it increased dramatically in the years leading up to the US Civil War and had since declined substantially. Similarly, one could look at the appearance of technological innovations, such as the radio and the telephone, in print material and infer that the rate of cultural adoption of these technologies has increased over time. These kinds of capabilities are not contingent on the existence of the Ngram Viewer, but rather reflective of how analysts can look toward word usage in print materials from different times to understand changes within a community and culture (e.g., Lieberman et al., 2007).
What would such an approach tell us about the learning sciences (LS)? Granted, the field spans decades rather than centuries, and the corpus of associated text is modest even against the wide range of education research literature published during the same period of time. However, it is our suspicion that even for a field that is still emerging and establishing its academic identity, an examination of frequency of word use across different times could be informative for our understanding of the field. This chapter summarizes some of our efforts to do that work. Building upon an analysis presented in 2012 (Lee, Ye, & Recker, 2012), we provide here an elaborated comparative analysis of proceedings from the first and the most recent (at the time of this writing) LS conferences (Birnbaum, 1991; Polman et al., 2014), as well as a third conference, roughly collocated with the first LS conference (Gomez, Lyons, & Radinsky, 2010).
In the present study, we investigated whether high dietary Ca and exogenous parathyroid hormone 1–34 fragments (PTH 1–34) have synergistic effects on bone formation in adult mice, and explored the related mechanisms. Adult male mice were fed a normal diet, a high-Ca diet, a PTH-treated diet, or a high-Ca diet combined with subcutaneously injected PTH 1–34 (80 μg/kg per d) for 4 weeks. Bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast number, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)- and type I collagen-positive areas, and the expression levels of osteoblastic bone formation-related genes and proteins were increased significantly in mice fed the high-Ca diet, the PTH-treated diet, and, even more dramatically, the high-Ca diet combined with PTH. Osteoclast number and surface and the ratio of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL):osteoprotegerin (OPG) were decreased in the high-Ca diet treatment group, increased in the PTH treatment group, but not in the combined treatment group. Furthermore, third-passage osteoblasts were treated with high Ca (5 mm), PTH 1–34 (10− 8m) or high Ca combined with PTH 1–34. Osteoblast viability and ALP activity were increased in either the high Ca-treated or PTH-treated cultures and, even more dramatically, in the cultures treated with high Ca plus PTH, with consistent up-regulation of the expression levels of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation-related genes and proteins. These results indicate that dietary Ca and PTH play synergistic roles in promoting osteoblastic bone formation by stimulating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.
The predictions of Length-Of-Day (LOD) are studied by means of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The EOP C04 time-series with daily values from the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) serve as the data basis. Firstly, well known effects that can be described by functional models, for example effects of the solid Earth and ocean tides or seasonal atmospheric variations, are removed a priori from the C04 time-series. Only the differences between the modelled and actual LOD, i.e. the irregular and quasi-periodic variations, are employed for training and prediction. Different input patterns are discussed and compared so as to optimise the GPR model. The optimal patterns have been found in terms of the prediction accuracy and efficiency, which conduct the multi-step ahead predictions utilising the formerly predicted values as inputs. Finally, the results of the predictions are analysed and compared with those obtained by other prediction methods. It is shown that the accuracy of the predictions are comparable with that of other prediction methods. The developed method is easy to use.
An all-solid-state single-frequency 1064 nm laser with a
pulse width, 500 Hz repetition rate and 700 mJ single pulse energy is designed using seed injection and a three-stage master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) construction. Using this as a basis, research on long-pulse laser frequency doubling is carried out. By designing and optimizing the lithium triborate (LBO) crystal, the theoretically calculated maximum conversion efficiency
reaches 68% at
is 33% at
. Generation of 212 mJ pulses of green light with a repetition rate as high as 500 Hz is obtained from a fundamental energy of 700 mJ. The experimental conversion efficiency reaches 31% and the power stability is better than
Oocyte-specific linker histone, H1foo, is localized on the oocyte chromosomes during the process of meiotic maturation, and is essential for mouse oocyte maturation. Bovine H1foo has been identified, and its expression profile throughout oocyte maturation and early embryo development has been established. However, it has not been confirmed if H1foo is indispensable during bovine oocyte maturation. Effective siRNAs against H1foo were screened in HeLa cells, and then siRNA was microinjected into bovine oocytes to down-regulate H1foo expression. H1foo overexpression was achieved via mRNA injection. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated that H1foo was up-regulated by 200% and down-regulated by 70%. Based on the first polar body extrusion (PB1E) rate, H1foo overexpression apparently promoted meiotic progression. The knockdown of H1foo significantly impaired bovine oocyte maturation compared with H1foo overexpression and control groups (H1foo overexpression = 88.7%, H1foo siRNA = 41.2%, control = 71.2%; P < 0.05). This decrease can be rescued by co-injection of a modified H1foo mRNA that has escaped from the siRNA target. However, the H1e (somatic linker histone) overexpression had no effect on PB1E rate when compared with the control group. Therefore we concluded that H1foo is essential for bovine oocyte maturation and its overexpression stimulates the process.
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystals are the only nonlinear crystals currently used for electro-optic switches and frequency converters in inertial confinement fusion research, due to their large dimension and exclusive physical properties. Based on the traditional solution-growth process, large bulk KDP crystals, usually with sizes up to 600
so as to make a frequency doubler for the facility requirement loading highly flux of power laser, can be grown in standard Holden-type crystallizers, without spontaneous nucleation and visible defects, one to two orders of magnitude faster than by conventional methods. Pure water and KDP raw material with a few ion impurities such as Fe, Cr, and Al (less than 0.1 ppm) were used. The rapid-growth method includes extreme conditions such as temperature range from 60 to 35
C, overcooling up to 5
C, growth rates exceeding 10 mm/day, and crystal size up to 600 mm. The optical parameters of KDP crystals were determined. The optical properties of crystals determined indicate that they are of favorable quality for application in the facility.
Nucleation doping strategy is an effective doping method; herein the synthesis of MnSe/CdSe nanocrystals using this strategy with different anion precursors was demonstrated. The resulted nanocrystals were characterized by various test technology to confirm the composition and structure. Wurtzite CdSe shell was achieved without using alkylphosphine, this is meaningful for the development of green chemistry. It is argued that the shell growth is more like a second nucleation process, rather than the epitaxial growth; this conclusion is believed to shed some light on the nucleation doping process.
The shapes of the interfacial delamination crack and stress states during wedge indentation in a soft-film-on-hard-substrate system were investigated systematically using the three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulation and wedge indentation experiment. In the simulation, a traction–separation law was used to characterize the failure behaviors of the interface. The effects of the wedge indenter tip length and the film thickness on the onset and growth of interfacial delamination were analyzed. It was shown that a two-dimensional (2D) to 3D transition of stress states occurred depending on the ratio of indenter length to film thickness. Furthermore, the interfacial delamination process by wedge indentation was conducted experimentally, and comparisons between the computational and experimental results yielded quantitative good agreement. Finally, a straightforward criterion based on the curvature of the delamination crack front was proposed to indicate the transition of stress states during the interfacial delamination. A guideline was therefore proposed to classify the 2D and 3D stress states for extracting the interface adhesion properties.
Iron oxides, including maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4), have been widely applied in many fields. For technological advances in the future, further improvements of their ferromagnetic properties are desirable. The development of iron ferrites with a large coercive field (Hc) is one of issues of consequence. For ferrites, however, enlarging the Hc value is not easy because of their low magnetocrystalling anisotropy constant. Here we report single-crystalline Cu-doped γ-Fe2O3 nanowires in which the controlled diameter (70–100 nm) and the graded Cu dopant (7, 10, and 15%) are directly obtained by a simple chemical vapor deposition technique. In particular, the coercive value (over 2 T) of 10% Cu-doped γ-Fe2O3 nanowires is much higher than that (<80 Oe) of undoped γ-Fe2O3 nanowires at room temperature. On the basis of the experimental magnetization data, the achievement of such a higher coercive field of Cu-doped γ-Fe2O3 (10%) nanowires is tentatively suggested.
We evaluate the probe forming capability of a JEOL 2200FS transmission electron microscope equipped with a spherical aberration (Cs) probe corrector. The achievement of a real space sub-Angstrom (0.1 nm) probe for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is demonstrated by acquisition and modeling of high-angle annular dark-field STEM images. We show that by optimizing the illumination system, large probe currents and large collection angles for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be combined to yield EELS fine structure data spatially resolved to the atomic scale. We demonstrate the probe forming flexibility provided by the additional lenses in the probe corrector in several ways, including the formation of nanometer-sized parallel beams for nanoarea electron diffraction, and the formation of focused probes for convergent beam electron diffraction with a range of convergence angles. The different probes that can be formed using the probe corrected STEM opens up new applications for electron microscopy and diffraction.
To evaluate echocardiographically the function and morphology of the right heart subsequent to transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects.
We performed echocardiographic studies in 73 patients undergoing transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects 1 day prior to closure, and then 3 days and 3 months after closure. We calculated the antero-posterior diameter of the right ventricle, the transverse diameter and length of the right atrium, the pulmonary arterial pressure, and the velocities of systolic movement and early and late diastolic movement of the basal parietal walls of the right ventricle.
The atrial septal defects varied in size between 8 and 33 millimetres, and were closed using occluders measuring from 10 to 40 millimetres. At 3 days after closure, the antero-posterior diameter of the right ventricle, the transverse diameter and length of the right atrium, the pulmonary arterial pressure, and the velocities of mural motion were all significantly decreased. After 3 months, the size of the right heart had more or less normalized.
Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects produces marked improvement in the function and geometry of the chambers of the right heart, reducing pulmonary arterial pressure as well as abolishing the interatrial shunt.
Jankowski's Bunting Emberiza jankowskii is endemic to China, Russia and Northern Korea, and was listed as a ‘Vulnerable’ species. The population in Dagang Forestry of western Jilin is one of the small remaining discrete breeding populations in the species' range. Very little information on the nesting biology and population dynamics has previously been published. We studied the nesting biology from 1999 to 2002 and population dynamics of the bunting from 1999 to 2006 (except 2003). A total of 74 nesting attempts were monitored. Jankowski's Bunting breeding season began in late April and usually ended in late July. Both sexes participated in nest-building, feeding young and defending the nest. Mean full clutch size for three years combined was 5.26 ± 0.76 eggs, and ranged from four to seven. Clutch size decreased with nest-initiation date. Mean hatching rate was 41.2%. Overall probability of Mayfield nest success to fledging was low for the three years, averaging 0.218 ± 0.007. The factors leading to low nest success include nest parasitization, nest predation, human activities and nest abandonment. Low survival of Jankowski's Bunting nests may be a factor in declining populations and the slow recovery of populations because of low recruitment at the population and the individual level. The population of Jankowski's Bunting in the Dagang Forestry grassland was small and declined dramatically from 1999 to 2006. The main threat is habitat loss and fragmentation due to agriculture, tree planting and housing following human colonization of the region. The habitat has been reduced in extent by c. 70% since the 1960s. In addition, grazing by domestic livestock dramatically destroyed their preferred vegetation. Furthermore, the restriction to several small, discrete sites makes the bunting inherently vulnerable to catastrophic and stochastic events that can eliminate subpopulations. Jankowski's bunting is one of the most threatened species in China and faces an unpredictable future. Maintaining the structure and general composition of remaining Jankowski's Bunting nesting habitat is important to ensure continued presence of this species in western Jilin and worldwide.