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To measure transmission frequencies and risk factors for household acquisition of community-associated and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Prospective cohort study from October 4, 2008, through December 3, 2012.
Seven acute care hospitals in or near Toronto, Canada.
Total of 99 MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected case patients and 183 household contacts.
Baseline interviews were conducted, and surveillance cultures were collected monthly for 3 months from household members, pets, and 8 prespecified high-use environmental locations. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing.
Overall, of 183 household contacts 89 (49%) were MRSA colonized, with 56 (31%) detected at baseline. MRSA transmission from index case to contacts negative at baseline occurred in 27 (40%) of 68 followed-up households. Strains were identical within households. The transmission risk for HA-MRSA was 39% compared with 40% (P=.95) for community-associated MRSA. HA-MRSA index cases were more likely to be older and not practice infection control measures (P=.002–.03). Household acquisition risk factors included requiring assistance and sharing bath towels (P=.001–.03). Environmental contamination was identified in 78 (79%) of 99 households and was more common in HA-MRSA households.
Household transmission of community-associated and HA-MRSA strains was common and the difference in transmission risk was not statistically significant.
The aim of this study was to determine the number of annual hospitalizations and overall episodes of care that involve a traumatic brain injury (TBI) by age and gender in the province of Ontario. To provide a more accurate assessment of the prevalence of TBI, episodes of care included visits to the emergency department (ED), as well as admissions to hospital. Mechanisms of injury for overall episodes were also investigated.
Traumatic brain injury cases from fiscal years 2002/03-2006/07 were identified by means of ICD-10 codes. Data were collected from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and the Discharge Abstract Database.
The rate of hospitalization was highest for elderly persons over 75 years-of-age. Males generally had higher rates for both hospitalizations and episodes of care than did females. The inclusion of ED visits to hospitalizations had the greatest impact on the rates of TBI in the youngest age groups. Episodes of care for TBI were greatest in youth under the age of 14 and elderly over the age of 85. Falls (41.6%) and being struck by or against an object (31.1%) were the most frequent causes for a TBI.
The study provides estimates for TBI from the only Canadian province that has systematically captured ED visits in a national registry. It shows the importance of tracking ED visits, in addition to hospitalizations, to capture the burden of TBI on the health care system. Prevention strategies should include information on ED visits, particularly for those at younger ages.
To identify the impact of private insurance coverage on discharge disposition after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) using injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) as a proxy for private insurance, controlling for age and severity of injury.
Patients with TBI discharged between 1993-1994 and 2000-2001 (n = 9,703).
Main Outcome Measure:
Discharge destination from acute care; controlled odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) for type of injury.
Type of injury, age, and length of stay are significantly associated with discharge destination. However, the motor vehicle accident patients are 56% more likely to be discharged to home with support services than patients with similar injuries from falls.
Even in a system with universal coverage, availability of private insurance type is a potential independent determinant of postacute care services. More research is required to determine the effect this relationship has on the cost and outcomes of care for TBI patients.
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