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Cormac McCarthy is the foremost American novelist to have simultaneously inspired and crafted screenplays which are successful in their own right. Beginning with his early script for The Gardener’s Son (1977) and continuing through both the Coen brothers’ film adaptation of No Country for Old Men (2007) and his own screenplay for The Counselor (2013), McCarthy has emerged as a formidable figure on both the page and on screen. Yet the intriguing aspect of this dual career is how fully his cinematic efforts have altered the trajectory of his novelistic creations, with an early verbal style that culminated in the famously baroque Blood Meridian honed decades later into a more elliptical, streamlined novelistic strain. And this becomes most clearly apparent in reviewing the successes (and failures) involved in adapting McCarthy’s astringent novelistic vision for the cinema. The review of seven distinct original screenplays and adaptations suggests that the arc of McCarthy’s novels cannot be adequately understood independent of his strong, developing commitment to cinematic possibilities, which have progressively altered a vision initiated as exclusively verbal and become increasingly tempered by visual and filmic considerations.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the direction of this association is not yet established, as most prior studies employed cross-sectional designs. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between PTSD and MetS using a longitudinal design.
A total of 1355 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent PTSD diagnostic assessments and their biometric profiles pertaining to MetS were extracted from the electronic medical record at two time points (spanning ~2.5 years, n = 971 at time 2).
The prevalence of MetS among veterans with PTSD was just under 40% at both time points and was significantly greater than that for veterans without PTSD; the prevalence of MetS among those with PTSD was also elevated relative to age-matched population estimates. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that PTSD severity predicted subsequent increases in MetS severity (β = 0.08, p = 0.002), after controlling for initial MetS severity, but MetS did not predict later PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression results suggested that for every 10 PTSD symptoms endorsed at time 1, the odds of a subsequent MetS diagnosis increased by 56%.
Results highlight the substantial cardiometabolic concerns of young veterans with PTSD and raise the possibility that PTSD may predispose individuals to accelerated aging, in part, manifested clinically as MetS. This demonstrates the need to identify those with PTSD at greatest risk for MetS and to develop interventions that improve both conditions.
In the years following the First World War, a style of writing emerged that transformed expectations for a genre a little older than half a century: the detective or mystery novel. Hard-boiled fiction represented a newly terse, unsentimental fiction that displaced conventional narratives and customary styles, corresponding with the emergence of a tight-lipped aesthetic heralded by Hemingway and Dos Passos. Ever more graphic depictions of sex and violence would occur in shabby urban settings with a central figure given to unabashedly American turns of phrase. The slang-slinging, wisecracking gumshoe announced in his very self-presentation a rejection of traditional literary standards and established cultural values. What started out as cheap melodrama, written breathlessly words-per-minute, published by pulp magazines for a barely literate readership (people, as Mary McCarthy remarked, whose lips moved when they read), became transmuted into literary gold and cinematic masterpieces. Gradually, a set of sterile formulas and stock clichés grew into a genre that in multiple permutations would dominate the reading and viewing habits of the American middle class for nearly a century.
Hard-boiled narratives are not set exclusively in the American West or even in America itself, though the legacy of the western gunslinger adopting extralegal methods to right social wrongs is certainly discernable in the figure of a private investigator walking mean city streets. And earlier small-town confrontations between bullying outlaws and a craven citizenry are recognizable in hard-boiled narratives that simply shift the action to corrupt urban precincts. Now a solitary figure traverses his metropolitan setting in an automobile not on a horse, and more often than not finds himself (unlike his cowboy avatar) morally impugned by the world he traverses. That such a largely urban, largely compromised vision should have emerged in the 1920s comes as little surprise in the aftermath of a global war in which conventional ideals and language seemed inadequate to events. But the confluence of separate developments – of a publishing industry in transition, of notable writers able to transfigure tired materials, of a western landscape urbanized with unseemly speed, and of a literary shift to new modes of representation – all contributed to a hard-boiled vision that soon modulated into more sophisticated noir fictional modes.
Psychological disorders co-occur often in children, but little has been done to document the types of conjoint pathways internalizing and externalizing symptoms may take from the crucial early period of toddlerhood or how harsh parenting may overlap with early symptom codevelopment. To examine symptom codevelopment trajectories, we identified latent classes of individuals based on internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ages 3–9 and found three symptom codevelopment classes: normative symptoms (low), severe-decreasing symptoms (initially high but rapidly declining), and severe symptoms (high) trajectories. Next, joint models examined how parenting trajectories overlapped with internalizing and externalizing symptom trajectories. These trajectory classes demonstrated that, normatively, harsh parenting increased after toddlerhood, but the severe symptoms class was characterized by a higher level and a steeper increase in harsh parenting and the severe-decreasing class by high, stable harsh parenting. In addition, a transactional model examined the bidirectional relationships among internalizing and externalizing symptoms and harsh parenting because they may cascade over time in this early period. Harsh parenting uniquely contributed to externalizing symptoms, controlling for internalizing symptoms, but not vice versa. In addition, internalizing symptoms appeared to be a mechanism by which externalizing symptoms increase. Results highlight the importance of accounting for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms from an early age to understand risk for developing psychopathology and the role harsh parenting plays in influencing these trajectories.
An understanding of trends and determinants for the residential mobility of elderly Canadians is essential for public policy and planning. Study of the patterns, changes over time, and determinants of the mobility of older Canadians has become increasingly important as the population ages. Elderly residential mobility has decreased substantially since 1971, and almost one-half of this decrease is due to changes in population composition. Because the multivariate analysis described here does not account for most of the downward trends in residential mobility, however, further work is needed on speculative explanations discussed in this article.
This article addresses three questions: Are elderly immigrants less likely than Canadian-born elderly people to reside independently? What are the effects of economic, cultural, and life course factors on residential independence among elderly immigrants? What are the effects of immigrant-specific characteristics such as duration of residence and cultural background? Descriptive results show that elderly immigrants are less likely to reside independently, but the large gap of over 15 per cent is reduced to 5 per cent once economic, cultural, life course, and other factors are considered in the multivariate analysis. Effects of economic, cultural, and life course factors are mostly as expected, as are those of immigrant-specific characteristics such as duration of residence. Although aging immigrants have more-varied living arrangements than their Canadian-born peers, these are likely to increasingly include residential independence.
Professor Russell proposes a decision model of turnover in which the attractiveness of the current job is compared with that of an alternative. In turn, an employee chooses the option with the highest judged attractiveness. For example, “Employees make decisions to quit based on the relative attractiveness of their current job compared to alternative jobs or activities” (2013, p. 163). The attractiveness of one's current job and alternative are estimated by a regression equation assessing various attributes of the two targets (i.e., current job and alternative). Evoking March and Simon (1958) for a theoretical foundation, Professor Russell offers a subjectively “rational model” for the choice to stay or leave based on expectancy and expected value type decision models. In his empirical work, he uses a “policy capturing” simulation to identify how new hires personally weigh various job attributes when deciding whether they would quit hypothetical jobs varying in those attributes (Russell & Van Sell, 2012). When these weights are applied to employees' actual survey perceptions of the levels of job attributes, the resulting “simulated turnover intention” score predicts turnover better than a survey measure of quit intentions or job attributes alone. The inference is that turnover scholars can make substantial progress toward the prediction of actual turnover by using this model.
We report the results of hypotheses tests about the effects of several measures of research, teaching, and service on the likelihood of achieving the ranks of associate and full professor. In conducting these tests, we control for institutional and individual background characteristics. We focus our tests on the link between productivity and academic rank and explore whether this relationship reveals a gender dimension. The analyses are based on an APSA-sponsored survey of all faculty members in departments of political science (government, public affairs, and international relations) in the United States.
Managing a successful research team involves a variety of activities and potential issues. In this article, we discuss these issues based on our experience of having worked together for 20 years with regular team meetings that include Ph.D. and undergraduate students and occasionally other faculty colleagues. We attempt to describe the challenges that occur, including some ethical issues, and distil the knowledge we have gained over the years. We pose and answer nine questions about our team processes and procedures and end with a brief summary of key learning.
In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District.
The enthalpy of formation of cubic ceria–zirconia solid solutions (c-Ce(1−x)ZrxO2, 0.05 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.75) at 25 °C with respect to monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) and cubic ceria (c-CeO2) has been measured by high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. In contrast to fluorite solid solutions containing trivalent oxides (e.g., yttria–zirconia), mixing in c-Ce1−xZrxO2 shows moderate positive deviation from ideality. Evaluating the data within the framework of a regular solution model, the interaction parameter, Ω, is +51.0 ± 8.0 kJ/mol. The introduction of undersized Zr into CeO2 severely distorts and destabilizes the oxygen sublattice. Destabilization of c-Ce1−xZrxO2 may be relieved by reduction or clustering. A stable ordered compound in the CeO2–ZrO2 system is thermodynamically unlikely.