The journey is long from the Massachusetts theocracy that banished Roger Williams in 1635 to the predominantly Roman Catholic Massachusetts of the twentieth century that finally in 1936 lifted that ancient ban against the original Rhode Islander. The tale of this remarkable transition is the story of how the heretic became the hero. In his own time, Williams had days of agony and glory—mostly the former. Likewise, in the running currents of our national history, his reputation has had days of agony and glory—mostly the latter. This is not to say, however, that he always properly deserved the precise glory given him, or, rather, that he has been invariably lauded for his true contribution.