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In Kawasaki disease, although coronary dilatation is attributed to vasculitis, the effect of myocardial inflammation is underestimated. Coronary dilatations are determined by Z-scores, which do not take into account dominance. The aim of the present study was to describe the impact of coronary dominance on dilatation in Kawasaki disease.
We performed a retrospective analysis of coronary dilatations according to angiography categorisation of dominance.
Of 28 patients (2.6 [0.2–10.1] years), right dominance was present in 15 patients and left in 13. Early dilatation was present in all patients, of whom 11 were ipsilateral to the dominant segment and 17 contralateral. Ipsilateral dilatations were present at diagnosis (9/11 versus 6/17, p=0.02) compared with contralateral dilatations, which developed 2 weeks after diagnosis (9/11 versus 16/17, p=0.29). Coronary artery Z-scores of patients with contralateral dilatation increased at 2 weeks, before returning to baseline values (2.0±2.2 at diagnosis, 4.1±1.8 at 2 weeks, 1.8±1.2 at 3–6 months, p=0.001), compared with patients with ipsilateral dilatation in whom Z-scores were maximal at diagnosis and remained stable (3.0±0.9, 2.7±1.1 and 2.6±1.5, respectively, p=0.13). Dominant coronary artery Z-scores were higher compared with non-dominant segments at diagnosis (3.0±0.9 versus 1.0±0.8, p<0.001) and at late follow-up (2.6±1.5 versus 0.4±1.4, p=0.002) in patients with ipsilateral dilatation.
Progression of coronary dilatation after diagnosis may be a sign of dilatation secondary to vasculitis, as opposed to regression of Z-scores in ipsilateral dilatations, probably related to physiological vasodilatation in response to carditis. This needs to be validated in larger studies against vasculitic and myocardial inflammatory markers.
We have lately documented the importance of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in aiding the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease.
We sought to investigate the potential value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide pertaining to the prediction of coronary artery dilatation (Z-score>2.5) and/or of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. We hypothesised that increased serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level correlates with increased coronary artery dilatation and/or resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin.
We carried out a prospective study involving newly diagnosed patients treated with 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin within 5–10 days of onset of fever. Echocardiography was performed in all patients at onset, then weekly for 3 weeks, then at month 2, and month 3. Coronary arteries were measured at each visit, and coronary artery Z-score was calculated. All the patients had N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum level measured at onset, and the Z-score calculated.
There were 109 patients enrolled at 6.58±2.82 days of fever, age 3.79±2.92 years. High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was associated with coronary artery dilatation at onset in 22.2 versus 5.6% for normal N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (odds ratio 4.8 [95% confidence interval 1.05–22.4]; p=0.031). This was predictive of cumulative coronary artery dilatation for the first 3 months (p=0.04–0.02), but not during convalescence at 2–3 months (odds ratio 1.28 [95% confidence interval 0.23–7.3]; p=non-significant). Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels did not predict intravenous immunoglobulin resistance, 15.3 versus 13.5% (p=1).
Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level correlates with acute coronary artery dilatation in treated Kawasaki disease, but not with intravenous immunoglobulin resistance.
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