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There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
To reduce the amount of chalcogen needed in the post-annealing process, we demonstrate significantly increased sulfur incorporation into pure sulfide CZTS films achieved by increasing the thiourea content of DMSO-based precursor solution. The increase of sulfur content was confirmed by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). To understand how the elemental distribution across the CZTS layer is affected by extra thiourea, a systematic compositional study was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS depth profiling reveals increased sulfur incorporation in the final CZTS films when more thiourea is added to the solution. The grain size was reduced slightly with increased sulfur content and the surface morphology was changed significantly. The effect on the surface of the CZTS film has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. External-quantum-efficiency (EQE) measurements with an electrolyte contact were used to investigate the optoelectronic properties of the deposited CZTS films.
Using direct photoelectrochemical measurement of the photocurrent obtained from Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layers made by a two-stage electroplating-sulfurisation process, the influence of processing conditions (temperature, time, and pressure) on material quality was investigated with a view to understanding the long sulfurisation times usually found in the literature. The improvement in photocurrent due to KCN etching was also studied, and seems to be due both to removal of surface phases and also slower etching of the bulk material. The optimum sulfurisation time was found to be around 50 minutes, despite evidence that sulfur incorporation and phase formation are complete within 5 minutes. Slow grain growth was suggested as a rate-limiting factor, and a rate constant was derived based on a simple model.
The Program Group for World-wide Development of Astronomy (PG-WWDA) is one of nine Commission 46 program groups engaged with various aspects of astronomical education or development of astronomy education and research in the developing world. In the case of PG-WWDA, its goals are to promote astronomy education and research in the developing world through a variety of activities, including visiting astronomers in developing countries and interacting with them by way of giving encouragement and support.
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