One-hundred and fifty-seven vertically infected HIV-1 positive infants (85 males, 72 females) underwent longitudinal assessment to determine whether early neurodevelopmental markers are useful predictors of mortality in those infants who survive to at least 4 months of age. Survival analysis methods were used to estimate time to death for quartiles of 4-month scores (baseline) on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Cox proportional hazards progression was used to estimate relative hazard (RH, 95% CI) of death for BSID scores and potential confounders. Thirty infants with BSID scores at 4 months of age died during follow-up. Survival analysis revealed greater mortality rates in infants with BSID (Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index) scores in the lower quartile(p=0.004, p=0.036). Unadjusted univariate analyses revealed increased mortality associated with baseline CD4+ 29%, gestational age <37 weeks, smaller head circumference, advanced HIV and higher plasma viral load. BSID scores independently predicted mortality after adjusting for treatment, clinical category, gestational age, plasma viral load and CD4+ percentage.