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Speleothem fluorescence can provide insights into past vegetation dynamics and stalagmite chronology. However, its origin and especially the formation of fluorescent laminations in stalagmites are poorly understood. We conducted a year-long monthly monitoring of drip water fluorescence in La Vallina Cave (northern Iberian Peninsula) and compared the results to drip water chemistry and active speleothems from the same sites. Drip waters were analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The resulting five-component model indicates contributions from vegetation, microbial activity, and bedrock. Intra-site fluorescence variability is mainly influenced by changes in overlying vegetation, water reservoir time, and respiration rates. Contrary to prevailing views, we find no systematic increase in drip water fluorescence during rainy conditions across drip sites and seasonal variations in drip water fluorescence are absent at a location where present-day speleothem layers form. Our findings challenge the notion of a higher abundance of humic-like fluorescence during the rainy season as the primary cause for layer formation and suggest additional controls on drip water fluorescence, such as bedrock interaction and microbial reprocessing. We also propose that growth rate may control the dilation of the fluorescence signal in stalagmites, indicating other potential mechanisms for fluorescent layer formation.
Mental health service delivery needs radical reimagination in the United States where unmet needs for care remain large and most metrics on the burden of mental health problems have worsened, despite significant numbers of mental health professionals, spending on service provision and research. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the need for mental health care. One path to a radical reimagination is “Community Initiated Care (CIC)” which equips and empowers communities to address by providing brief psychosocial interventions by people in community settings. We co-developed a theory of change (ToC) for CIC with 24 stakeholders including representatives from community-based, advocacy, philanthropic and faith-based organizations to understand how CIC could be developed and adapted for specific contexts. We present a ToC which describes ways in which the CIC initiative can promote and strengthen mental health in communities in the United States with respect to community organization and leadership; community care and inclusion and normalizing mental health. We propose 10 strategies as part of CIC and propose a way forward for implementation and evaluation. This CIC model is a local, tailored approach which can expand the role of community members to strengthen our response to mental health needs in the United States.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has serious physiological and psychological consequences. The long-term (>12 weeks post-infection) impact of COVID-19 on mental health, specifically in older adults, is unclear. We longitudinally assessed the association of COVID-19 with depression symptomatology in community-dwelling older adults with metabolic syndrome within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus cohort.
Participants (n = 5486) aged 55–75 years were included in this longitudinal cohort. COVID-19 status (positive/negative) determined by tests (e.g. polymerase chain reaction severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, IgG) was confirmed via event adjudication (410 cases). Pre- and post-COVID-19 depressive symptomatology was ascertained from annual assessments conducted using a validated 21-item Spanish Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between COVID-19 and depression symptomatology.
COVID-19 in older adults was associated with higher post-COVID-19 BDI-II scores measured at a median (interquartile range) of 29 (15–40) weeks post-infection [fully adjusted β = 0.65 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–1.15; p = 0.011]. This association was particularly prominent in women (β = 1.38 points, 95% CI 0.44–2.33, p = 0.004). COVID-19 was associated with 62% increased odds of elevated depression risk (BDI-II ≥ 14) post-COVID-19 when adjusted for confounders (odds ratio; 95% CI 1.13–2.30, p = 0.008).
COVID-19 was associated with long-term depression risk in older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Thus, long-term evaluations of the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and preventive public health initiatives are warranted in older adults.
The present study investigates the interplay between proficiency and empathy in the development of second language (L2) prosody by analyzing the perception and processing of intonation in questions and statements in L2 Spanish. A total of 225 adult L2 Spanish learners (L1 English) from the Northeastern United States completed a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task in which they listened to four utterance types and categorized them as either questions or statements. We used Bayesian multilevel regression and drift diffusion modeling to analyze the 2AFC data as a function of proficiency level and empathy scores for each utterance type. We show that learner response accuracy and sensitivity to intonation are positively correlated with proficiency, and this association is affected by individual empathy levels in both response accuracy and sentence processing. Higher empathic individuals, in comparison with lower empathic individuals, appear to be more sensitive to intonation cues in the process of forming sound-meaning associations, though increased sensitivity does not necessarily imply increased processing speed. The results motivate the inclusion of measures of pragmatic skill, such as empathy, to better account for intonational meaning processing and sentence comprehension in second language acquisition.
Image-processing pipelines require the design of complex workflows combining many different steps that bring the raw acquired data to a final result with biological meaning. In the image-processing domain of cryo-electron microscopy single-particle analysis (cryo-EM SPA), hundreds of steps must be performed to obtain the three-dimensional structure of a biological macromolecule by integrating data spread over thousands of micrographs containing millions of copies of allegedly the same macromolecule. The execution of such complicated workflows demands a specific tool to keep track of all these steps performed. Additionally, due to the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the estimation of any image parameter is heavily affected by noise resulting in a significant fraction of incorrect estimates. Although low SNR and processing millions of images by hundreds of sequential steps requiring substantial computational resources are specific to cryo-EM, these characteristics may be shared by other biological imaging domains. Here, we present Scipion, a Python generic open-source workflow engine specifically adapted for image processing. Its main characteristics are: (a) interoperability, (b) smart object model, (c) gluing operations, (d) comparison operations, (e) wide set of domain-specific operations, (f) execution in streaming, (g) smooth integration in high-performance computing environments, (h) execution with and without graphical capabilities, (i) flexible visualization, (j) user authentication and private access to private data, (k) scripting capabilities, (l) high performance, (m) traceability, (n) reproducibility, (o) self-reporting, (p) reusability, (q) extensibility, (r) software updates, and (s) non-restrictive software licensing.
Family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients experience burden of care. The aims of this study are to describe the caregiving phenomenon among FCs of advanced cancer patients in a Latino community and to identify caregiver and patient characteristics associated with high-intensity subjective caregiver burden.
In this cross-sectional study, advanced cancer patient–caregiver dyads assessed at a Palliative Care Unit in Santiago, Chile, enrolled in a longitudinal observational study were included. FCs completed questions to describe the caregiving phenomenon and surveys to assess burden of care, psychological distress, and perception of patients’ symptoms; patients completed surveys to assess physical distress and quality of life (QOL). We explored associations between high-intensity subjective caregiver burden with caregiver and patient variables.
Two hundred seven dyads were analyzed. FCs were on average 50 years old and 75% female. Thirty-two percent of FCs experienced high-intensity subjective burden of care. Eighty two percent of FCs took care of the patient daily and 31% took care of the patient alone. In univariate analysis, high-intensity caregiver burden was associated with caregiver depression (59% vs. 27%; p < 0.001), anxiety (86% vs. 67%; p = 0.003), caring for the patient alone (45% vs. 24%; p = 0.002), perception of patient symptom distress, patient religion, and worse patient QOL (mean [standard deviation] 58  vs. 68 ; p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, FC depression (OR [95% confidence interval] 3.07 [1.43–6.60]; p = 0.004), anxiety (3.02 [1.19–7.71]; p = 0.021), caring for the patient alone (2.69 [1.26–5.77]; p = 0.011), caregiver perception of patient’s fatigue (1.26 [1.01–1.58]; p = 0.04), and patient’s religion (3.90 [1.21–12.61]; p = 0.02) were independently associated with caregiver burden.
Significance of results
FCs of advanced cancer patients in a Latino community frequently experience high-intensity burden of care and are exposed to measures of objective burden. High-intensity burden is associated with both caregiver and patient factors. Policies should aim to make interventions on patient–caregiver dyads to decrease caregiving burden among Latinos.
Childhood adversity and cannabis use are considered independent risk factors for psychosis, but whether different patterns of cannabis use may be acting as mediator between adversity and psychotic disorders has not yet been explored. The aim of this study is to examine whether cannabis use mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis.
Data were utilised on 881 first-episode psychosis patients and 1231 controls from the European network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Detailed history of cannabis use was collected with the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess exposure to household discord, sexual, physical or emotional abuse and bullying in two periods: early (0–11 years), and late (12–17 years). A path decomposition method was used to analyse whether the association between childhood adversity and psychosis was mediated by (1) lifetime cannabis use, (2) cannabis potency and (3) frequency of use.
The association between household discord and psychosis was partially mediated by lifetime use of cannabis (indirect effect coef. 0.078, s.e. 0.022, 17%), its potency (indirect effect coef. 0.059, s.e. 0.018, 14%) and by frequency (indirect effect coef. 0.117, s.e. 0.038, 29%). Similar findings were obtained when analyses were restricted to early exposure to household discord.
Harmful patterns of cannabis use mediated the association between specific childhood adversities, like household discord, with later psychosis. Children exposed to particularly challenging environments in their household could benefit from psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing cannabis misuse.
While cannabis use is a well-established risk factor for psychosis, little is known about any association between reasons for first using cannabis (RFUC) and later patterns of use and risk of psychosis.
We used data from 11 sites of the multicentre European Gene-Environment Interaction (EU-GEI) case–control study. 558 first-episode psychosis patients (FEPp) and 567 population controls who had used cannabis and reported their RFUC.
We ran logistic regressions to examine whether RFUC were associated with first-episode psychosis (FEP) case–control status. Path analysis then examined the relationship between RFUC, subsequent patterns of cannabis use, and case–control status.
Controls (86.1%) and FEPp (75.63%) were most likely to report ‘because of friends’ as their most common RFUC. However, 20.1% of FEPp compared to 5.8% of controls reported: ‘to feel better’ as their RFUC (χ2 = 50.97; p < 0.001). RFUC ‘to feel better’ was associated with being a FEPp (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.03–2.95) while RFUC ‘with friends’ was associated with being a control (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.83). The path model indicated an association between RFUC ‘to feel better’ with heavy cannabis use and with FEPp-control status.
Both FEPp and controls usually started using cannabis with their friends, but more patients than controls had begun to use ‘to feel better’. People who reported their reason for first using cannabis to ‘feel better’ were more likely to progress to heavy use and develop a psychotic disorder than those reporting ‘because of friends’.
Este artículo estudia la circulación y apropiación de la legislación electoral en Colombia entre 1855 y 1886. Ofrece algunas respuestas y una nueva perspectiva para el estudio de la propagación, recepción y lectura de la democracia en Colombia e Hispanoamérica en el siglo XIX. El trabajo abre con un estudio de la circulación de las constituciones y las leyes electorales, en un esfuerzo por examinar las distintas maneras en que los gobernantes, periódicos, librerías y tiendas expandieron este campo de la cultura escrita. Se ofrece también un análisis de cómo se apropiaron de esta legislación electoral numerosos sectores de la sociedad en distintos contextos. El ensayo concluye con unas reflexiones acerca de las dos primeras secciones, cuestiona algunos lugares comunes de la historiografía imperial acerca de las repúblicas de Hispanoamérica, e indaga por el lugar que tuvo la circulación de estas constituciones y leyes electorales en un mundo todavía dominado por los imperios y los reinos.
There is zero tolerance for dicamba and dicamba metabolite residue in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit following exposure to dicamba. Field trials were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine the persistence of dicamba and metabolite (5-hydroxy dicamba and 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid [DCSA]) residue in processing tomato shoots and fruits. Dicamba was applied 49 d after transplanting at 0, 0.53, 5.3, and 53 g ae ha−1. Tomato plants were harvested 5, 10, 20, 40, and 61 d after treatment (DAT). No 5-hydroxy dicamba was recovered from any sample. In 2020, the DCSA metabolite was detected from tomato shoot tissue when dicamba was applied at the 53 g ha−1 rate at 0 (14 µg kg−1), 5 (3 µg kg−1), and 20 DAT (5 µg kg−1) and from tomato fruit tissue at 53 g ha−1 at 20 (2 µg kg−1) and 61 DAT (2 µg kg−1). In 2021, DCSA was not detected from tomato shoot or fruit tissues at any harvest date. By 5 DAT, dicamba was only detected from tomato shoot tissues treated with 53 g ha−1. At 0 DAT, dicamba residue was detectable only from tomato fruit on plants treated with 53 g ha−1. Tomato fruit dicamba residue from plants treated with 5.3 g ha−1 had a predicted peak of 19 µg kg−1 at 11.3 DAT. Tomato fruit dicamba residue from plants treated with 53 g ha−1 decreased from 164 to 8 µg kg−1 from 5 to 61 DAT. Furthermore, this study confirms that dicamba is detectable from tomato fruits at 61 DAT following exposure to 5.3 or 53 g ha−1 dicamba. Growers who suspect dicamba exposure should include tomato fruit tissue with their collected sample or sample tomato fruits separately.
Carbon reduction is an important process for Earth-like origins of life events and of great interest to the astrobiology community. In this paper, we have collected experimental results, field work and modelling data on CO and CO2 reduction in order to summarize the research that has been carried out particularly in relation to the early Earth and Mars. By having a database of this work, researchers will be able to clearly survey the parameters tested and find knowledge gaps wherein more experimentation would be most beneficial. We focused on reviewing the modelling parameters, field work and laboratory conditions relevant to Mars and the early Earth. We highlight important areas addressed as well as suggest future work needed, including identifying relevant parameters to test in both laboratory and modelling work. We also discuss the utility of organizing research results in such a database in astrobiology.
Recovery from alcohol use disorder involves achieving certain resources for positive lifestyle changes, well-being, and long-term abstinence. The present study aims to translate and validate the Assessment Capital Recovery (ARC) in a Spanish clinical sample of individuals with alcohol use disorder, in abstinence. The participants were 184 patients who attended outpatient treatments. They were evaluated with the adapted version of the ARC (Spanish abbreviation: “Valoración del Capital de Recuperación, VCR”) and by WHOQOL-BREF (quality of life scale), in one session. Statistical analysis included the calculation of reliability, convergent validity (relationship with WHOQOL-BREF), specificity and sensitivity, as well as validity based on internal structure (confirmatory factor analysis). VCR scores show appropriate values for reliability (α = .90), and a low convergent validity with WHOQOL-BREF (Rho = .33–.53). The VCR appears to distinguish between patients with early and stable sobriety (χ2 = 20.55, p < .01). The ROC curve indicates significant discrimination values (p < .05) for stable recovery (5 years of abstinence) and sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 71.2%. Further, confirmatory factor analysis suggests the presence of a single factor, with relatively acceptable values of goodness of fit and factor loadings. We used ULS parameter estimation to study VCR properties, an appropriate tool for assessing recovery in clinical populations of individuals with alcohol use disorder in abstinence.
The southern Red Sea is a key region for investigating the effect of climate forces on a semi-closed basin. Detailed micropaleontological (planktic foraminifera) and isotopic (δ18Ο, δ13C) analyses along with reconstructions of sea surface temperature and salinity on a sediment core from the Farasan banks revealed the imprints of sea level changes and the South Asian Monsoon on the area. Comparison with surrounding records provided insights on the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden (GoA)-Northwestern Arabian Sea (NWArS) water exchange pattern over the last 30 ka. During glacial sea-level lowstand, flow of water from the GoA prevented hypersalinity in the southern Red Sea. Deglacial sea level rise improved water mass exchange between the NWArS, GoA and the entire Red Sea, resulting in relatively similar surface water conditions during the early Holocene when sea-level rise slowed. Thus, sea level change is the major driver of Red Sea δ18O variability. Southwest Monsoon (SWM), which was dominant during the late glacial and Early–Middle Holocene, enhanced surface productivity in the southern Red Sea. Northeast Monsoon (NEM) dominated around Heinrich stadial 1, as indicated by a nearly aplanktonic zone that was probably caused by restricted GoA inflow and low productivity.
Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and depression (D) run in families. This susceptibility is partly due to hundreds or thousands of common genetic variants, each conferring a fractional risk. The cumulative effects of the associated variants can be summarised as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Using data from the EUropean Network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) first episode case–control study, we aimed to test whether PRSs for three major psychiatric disorders (SZ, BD, D) and for intelligent quotient (IQ) as a neurodevelopmental proxy, can discriminate affective psychosis (AP) from schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD).
Participants (842 cases, 1284 controls) from 16 European EU-GEI sites were successfully genotyped following standard quality control procedures. The sample was stratified based on genomic ancestry and analyses were done only on the subsample representing the European population (573 cases, 1005 controls). Using PRS for SZ, BD, D, and IQ built from the latest available summary statistics, we performed simple or multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for 10 principal components for the different clinical comparisons.
In case–control comparisons PRS-SZ, PRS-BD and PRS-D distributed differentially across psychotic subcategories. In case–case comparisons, both PRS-SZ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–0.92] and PRS-D (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.61) differentiated AP from SSD; and within AP categories, only PRS-SZ differentiated BD from psychotic depression (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.23–3.74).
Combining PRS for severe psychiatric disorders in prediction models for psychosis phenotypes can increase discriminative ability and improve our understanding of these phenotypes. Our results point towards the potential usefulness of PRSs in specific populations such as high-risk or early psychosis phases.
A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to the number of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing polygenic vulnerability. Here, we investigated, in the largest sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases to date, whether childhood adversity and high polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PRS) combine synergistically to increase the risk of psychosis, over and above the effect of each alone.
We assigned a schizophrenia-polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS), calculated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2), to all participants in a sample of 384 FEP patients and 690 controls from the case–control component of the EU-GEI study. Only participants of European ancestry were included in the study. A history of childhood adversity was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Synergistic effects were estimated using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) [odds ratio (OR)exposure and PRS − ORexposure − ORPRS + 1] with adjustment for potential confounders.
There was some evidence that the combined effect of childhood adversities and polygenic risk was greater than the sum of each alone, as indicated by an ICR greater than zero [i.e. ICR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.29 to 3.85]. Examining subtypes of childhood adversities, the strongest synergetic effect was observed for physical abuse (ICR 6.25, 95% CI −6.25 to 20.88).
Our findings suggest possible synergistic effects of genetic liability and childhood adversity experiences in the onset of FEP, but larger samples are needed to increase precision of estimates.
Heterogeneity in the number of secondary tuberculosis (TB) cases per source case, the effective reproductive number, R, is important in modelling prevention strategies' impact on incidence.
We estimated mean R (Rm) and calculate the dispersion parameter of this distribution, k, using surveillance and genotyping data for U.S. cases during 2009–2018. We modelled transmission assuming cases in a cluster have matching genotypes and share characteristics related to geography, temporal proximity (i.e. serial interval) and time since U.S. arrival among non-U.S.-born persons.
Complete data were available for 55 330/85 958 cases. Varying the serial interval and geographic proximity used to derive clusters, we consistently estimated Rm<1.0 and k < 0.08; the low value of k indicates a small number of source cases produce a disproportionate number of secondary cases.
U.S. TB reproductive number has a highly skewed distribution, indicating a minority of source cases disproportionately contribute to transmission.
Este trabajo está centrado en el estudio de una de las primeras formas de manejo ganadero de la época colonial en la Banda Oriental. Aborda específicamente el análisis de un conjunto de corrales de palmas ubicados en el sureste del Uruguay, en la frontera con Brasil. Está basado en un enfoque interdisciplinar en el que se combinó el trabajo con la población local, el análisis historiográfico, la prospección remota y sobre el terreno, el análisis morfométrico de la totalidad de los corrales y las palmas que los componen, y el análisis fisicoquímico del sedimento (análisis de fosfatos y partículas biosilíceas). El artículo propone que estas estructuras son uno de los cerramientos ganaderos más antiguos (siglos diecisiete y dieciocho) de la Banda Oriental, vinculados a formas indígenas de manejo vegetal y animal que se fueron reajustando durante la colonización europea de este sector fronterizo del Cono Sur de América.
To evaluate broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic use before and after the implementation of a revised febrile neutropenia management algorithm in a population of adults with hematologic malignancies.
Setting and population:
Patients admitted between 2014 and 2018 to the Adult Malignant Hematology service of an acute-care hospital in the United States.
Aggregate data for adult malignant hematology service were obtained for population-level antibiotic use: days of therapy (DOT), C. difficile infections, bacterial bloodstream infections, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. All rates are reported per 1,000 patient days before the implementation of an febrile neutropenia management algorithm (July 2014–May 2016) and after the intervention (June 2016–December 2018). These data were compared using interrupted time series analysis.
In total, 2,014 patients comprised 6,788 encounters and 89,612 patient days during the study period. Broad-spectrum intravenous (IV) antibiotic use decreased by 5.7% with immediate reductions in meropenem and vancomycin use by 22 (P = .02) and 15 (P = .001) DOT per 1,000 patient days, respectively. Bacterial bloodstream infection rates significantly increased following algorithm implementation. No differences were observed in the use of other antibiotics or safety outcomes including C. difficile infection, ICU length of stay, and in-hospital mortality.
Reductions in vancomycin and meropenem were observed following the implementation of a more stringent febrile neutropenia management algorithm, without evidence of adverse outcomes. Successful implementation occurred through a collaborative effort and continues to be a core reinforcement strategy at our institution. Future studies evaluating patient-level data may identify further stewardship opportunities in this population.