To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Tubular pottery comprises certain peculiar artifacts that were produced by late Holocene complex hunter-gatherer societies in southeastern South America for unknown purposes. Some authors have related them to mortuary behaviour which has also been suggested by historical sources, while others have considered domestic use. In this paper, the technical, compositional and functional properties of these artifacts are explored in order to contrast both hypotheses, given an example of how technical analysis allows the identification of special pottery within archeological contexts. This analysis includes a study of the fabrics involved using low and high magnification, thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and fatty acid profiles. The results show that these tubular artifacts are not fit structurally for utilitarian purposes and show no evidence of domestic use. Based on these results and on historical data, it can be postulated that they were used as part of mortuary rituals, thus becoming part of the select global group of pottery manufactured exclusively for mortuary purposes.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
In this Research Communication we analyse the animal welfare status of dairy farms located in southern Spain and test the hypothesis that monitoring of wellbeing could increase the profitability of dairy herds by improving indices of reproduction. Twenty dairy farms were visited and a total of 1650 cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® (WQ) protocol to determine their welfare status. These farms were selected as representatives of the main types of dairy farms found in the south of Spain. No farms attained a welfare status of ‘excellent’, but all obtained an adequate score for most parameters. Feeding assessment showed relatively low variability among farms, whereas housing and health assessments exhibited high variability. Significant correlations were found between a number of welfare parameter pairings: between percentage of collisions and time needed to lie down; between cleanliness of water points and cleanliness of various animal parts; between farms with access to an outdoor loafing area and an inadequate body condition score and with animal cleanliness; between the frequency of animals lying partly or completely outside of the lying area and the percentage of integument alterations and finally between the presence of respiratory problems and farm hygiene parameters. Furthermore, significant correlations between welfare parameters, reproductive indices and milk production were found. The percentage of cows exhibiting an inadequate body condition score and farms where cows took longer to lie down were correlated with the calving-first insemination interval. Animals showing a higher incidence of coughing and hampered respiration presented lower heat detection rates and milk production and finally farms with dirtier animals had lower milk production. This study is the first step towards including welfare in the recording of routine data in dairy cattle farms in southern Spain.
Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
We propose a consistent and computationally efficient 2-step methodology for the estimation of multidimensional non-Gaussian asset models built using Lévy processes. The proposed framework allows for dependence between assets and different tail behaviors and jump structures for each asset. Our procedure can be applied to portfolios with a large number of assets because it is immune to estimation dimensionality problems. Simulations show good finite sample properties and significant efficiency gains. This method is especially relevant for risk management purposes such as, for example, the computation of portfolio Value at Risk and intra-horizon Value at Risk, as we show in detail in an empirical illustration.
Planet formation takes place in the gaseous and dusty disks that surround young stars, known as protoplanetary disks. With the advent of sensitive observations and together with developments in theory, our field is making rapid progress in understanding how the evolution of protoplanetary disks takes place, from its inception to the end result of a fully-formed planetary system. In this review, I discuss how observations that trace both the dust and gas components of these systems inform us about their evolution, mass budget, and chemistry. Particularly, the process of disk evolution and planet formation will leave an imprint on the distribution of solid particles at different locations in a protoplanetary disk, and I focus on recent observational results at high angular resolution in the sub-millimeter regime, which have revealed a variety of substructures present in these objects.
Text comprehension relies on high-level cognitive processes as it is the ability to revise an erroneous inference. Recent models of language processing hold that native language processing is proactive in nature (highly predictive), whereas processing seems to be weaker in the second language. However, if a prediction fails because unexpected information is encountered, reactive processing is needed to revise previous information. Twenty-four highly proficient late bilinguals were presented with narratives in L1-English and L2-Spanish. Each text demanded the revision of an initial predictive inference. Reading times and N400 amplitude suggested inferential revision is less efficient in the L2 compared to the L1. Importantly, these effects were modulated by individual differences in cognitive control and L2 proficiency. More efficient L1 comprehension was related to a balance between proactive and reactive control and lower L2 proficiency, whereas more native-like L2 comprehension was associated with a strong proactive control and higher L2 proficiency.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
SnS2 has adequate properties for photovoltaic applications in solar cells. For this purpose, we studied the influence of the capping agents pyridine and aniline in the nanoparticles hydrothermal syntheses. These capping agents are suitable for use in hybrid organic- inorganic solar cells. Different ratios of these agents with respect to the metal precursor were tested. Hexagonal and disc-type nanoparticles were obtained. Lower concentrations of capping agent increased the proportion of hexagons, while diminishing their size. The obtained products are adequate in size, dispersion of size, and stabile in suspension in chloroform to use them in hybrid solar cells. Moreover, the use ofpyridine allowed for more stable suspensions, and therefore better results for this application.
In this Research Communication we assessed factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes using the Brix-refractometer. Colostrum from 536 lambings from one commercial intensive dairy Lacaune farm were analysed for the following factors with potential influence in colostrum quality: (1) ewe parity (n = 84–132), (2) length of previous dry period (PDP) (n = 23–214), (3) age at first lambing (AFL) of primiparous ewes (n = 9–88), (4) lambing season (n = 192 or 344), and (5) year (2011–2013, n = 142–203). Parity significantly affected colostrum quality, with primiparous ewes showing the highest Brix refractometer values (22·6 ± 5·6%, P < 0·0001), though values were similar among multiparous ewes. PDP length also significantly affected colostrum quality: ewes with the shortest PDP showed the worst quality (16·8 ± 4·2%, P < 0·0001), with quality gradually rising with PDP length. Colostrum quality was significantly higher in 2011 (21·0 ± 5·2%) than in 2012 or 2013 (P < 0·0001); this likely reflects the several-fold greater proportion of animals with long PDP in 2011. In contrast, neither AFL nor lambing season significantly affected colostrum quality. These results suggest that parity and PDP length can substantially affect ovine colostrum quality of dairy ewes under intensive management conditions and they further show the usefulness of the Brix refractometer for providing a rough estimation of colostrum quality on-farm. However, further studies are needed to determine a validated cut-off Brix value for identifying good-quality colostra in ovine species.
We present new data on a class of ceramics called Tiltepec yellow wares, dated to the Late and Terminal Formative period occupations at Cerro Jazmín, Oaxaca (300 BC– AD 300). Evidence from 27 radiocarbon-dated ceramic assemblages indicates that Tiltepec yellow wares are a distinct ceramic type. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) results further confirm the wares’ identification. Defining Tiltepec yellow wares as a type apart from Classic-period orange ceramics allows the reassessment of the regional settlement sequence, previously understood to indicate widespread settlement abandonment in the Terminal Formative period. The new data suggest that Cerro Jazmín had a more continuous urban occupation than previously thought.
Recent theoretical and observational works claim the existence of galaxies with a characteristic age profile consisting on a negative radial trend followed by a smooth age upturn in its outskirts (“U-shape”). This shape has been generally related to down-bending light distributions; however, the existence of a real link between observed Surface Brightness (SB) profiles and changes in stellar properties such as age is still unclear.
Protoplanetary disks with cavities in their dust distribution, also named transitional disks, are expected to be in the middle of active evolution and possibly planet formation. In recent years, millimeter-dust rings observed by ALMA have been suggested to have their origin in dust traps, caused by pressure bumps. One of the ways to generate these is by the presence of planets, which lower the gas density along their orbit and create pressure bumps at the edge. We present spatially resolved ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 observations of CO and CO isotopologues of several famous transitional disks. Gas is found to be present inside the dust cavities, but at a reduced level compared with the gas surface density profile of the outer disk. The dust and gas emission are quantified using the physical-chemical modeling code DALI. In the majority of these disks we find clear evidence for a drop in gas density of at least a factor of 10 inside the cavity, whereas the dust density drops by at least a factor 1000. The CO isotopologue observations reveal that the gas cavities are significantly smaller than the dust cavities. These gas structures suggest clearing by one or more planetary-mass companions.
Seven isoproteic and isolipidic semi-purified diets were formulated to assess specific nutrient deficiencies in sulphur amino acids (SAA), n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), phospholipids (PL), P, minerals (Min) and vitamins (Vit). The control diet (CTRL) contained these essential nutrients in adequate amounts. Each diet was allocated to triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream fed to satiety over an 11-week feeding trial period. Weight gain of n-3 LC-PUFA, P–Vit and PL–Min–SAA groups was 50, 60–75 and 80–85 % of the CTRL group, respectively. Fat retention was decreased by all nutrient deficiencies except by the Min diet. Strong effects on N retention were found in n-3 LC-PUFA and P fish. Combined anaemia and increased blood respiratory burst were observed in n-3 LC-PUFA fish. Hypoproteinaemia was found in SAA, n-3 LC-PUFA, PL and Vit fish. Derangements of lipid metabolism were also a common disorder, but the lipodystrophic phenotype of P fish was different from that of other groups. Changes in plasma levels of electrolytes (Ca, phosphate), metabolites (creatinine, choline) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase) were related to specific nutrient deficiencies in PL, P, Min or Vit fish, whereas changes in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I primarily reflected the intensity of the nutritional stressor. Histopathological scoring of the liver and intestine segments showed specific nutrient-mediated changes in lipid cell vacuolisation, inflammation of intestinal submucosa, as well as the distribution and number of intestinal goblet and rodlet cells. These results contribute to define the normal range of variation for selected biometric, biochemical, haematological and histochemical markers.
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was compiled by analysing national directives, legislation, regulations, and publicly available reports. Marked differences were found between countries in the degree of ecological relevance as well as in the degree of implementation and operability of the parameters chosen to indicate biological diversity. The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side, the chosen parameters for D1 indicators were generally identified as being an ecologically relevant reflection of Biological Diversity. On the negative side however, less than half of the chosen parameters are currently operational. It appears that at a pan-European level, no consistent and harmonized approach currently exists for the description and assessment of marine biological diversity. The implementation of the MSFD Descriptor 1 for Europe as a whole can therefore at best be marked as moderately successful.
The objective of the study was to design and evaluate a pilot programme aimed at promoting the active ageing of older adults at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study was conducted in three stages: (a) design; (b) implementation; and (c) before–after evaluation through analysis of changes in functional status, occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. To overcome the limitations of the study design, we evaluated the effect of 80 per cent adherence to the programme on the outcome variables using the generalised linear regression models (GLM). Two hundred and thirty-nine older adults agreed to participate, of whom 65 per cent completed the programme. Most were women; the average age was 77 years. Adherence to the programme was higher than 75 per cent for the group who completed active ageing services and less than 60 per cent for the drop-out group. Overall, 46 per cent of older adults reached an adherence level of 80 per cent or higher. Adherence was significantly associated with improved quality of life total score (coefficient 2.7, p<0.0001) and occupational functioning total score (coefficient 2.2, p<0.0001). Participation of older adults in an active ageing programme may improve their health-related quality of life and occupational functioning. It is necessary to identify the potential barriers and to implement strategies to improve the recruitment and retention rates during the intervention.
During seed germination, metabolism is reactivated, DNA is repaired and cell division is restarted in the meristems. The mechanisms that co-ordinate cell growth and division in maize embryonic axes during germination are not well understood. However, the presence of a factor similar to IGF (insulin-like growth factor) that accelerates germination has been reported. In the present work, the regulation of the cell-cycle restart by bovine insulin [which has been demonstrated to produce similar effects as insulin-like growth factor of maize (ZmIGF) in maize seeds] was studied in germinating embryonic axes. Our results showed that bovine insulin differentially stimulates growth, S6K phosphorylation, S6rp transcript accumulation on the polysomal fraction, as well as de novo DNA synthesis in the radicles and the coleoptiles of the embryonic axis. A stronger and earlier effect was observed in radicles compared to coleoptiles; therefore, the effect of insulin on the cell cycle of the root meristem was studied by flow cytometry. The G1–S transition was stimulated and cell proliferation was induced. Furthermore, it was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) that bovine insulin increased E2F and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) transcription after 15 h of germination and PCNA de novo synthesis at 15 h of germination. These results show that bovine insulin preferentially stimulates growth in the radicles of germinating embryonic axes and suggest that its effect on the G1–S transition and the activation of cell proliferation is mediated by the induction of E2F and PCNA transcription.