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The main aim of this study was to confirm the relationship between executive performance and salivary alpha-amylase (SAA) activity in a sample of 64 healthy children (39 boys), and compare it to the association of SAA output and salivary flow rate (SFR). Executive functioning was assessed via fluency, trail-making, rings and inhibition tasks from the Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en Niños [Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children] (ENFEN), merged into an ENFEN total score. SAA activity, output, and SFR were measured at baseline, one minute before, and one minute after the end of a neuropsychological testing session. Our results confirmed a direct, linear and significant association between SAA activity and executive functioning, r(64) = .351, p < .05, and extended it to SAA output, r(64) =.431, p < .05. The mean level of SAA output was the best predictor of executive functioning (β = .431, p < .05) and explained 18.2 % of the variance in ENFEN total score. In sum, and compared to SAA activity, measuring SAA output may be a more precise and indirect marker to assess executive functioning in children.
Radio-echo sounding (RES) can be used to understand ice-sheet processes, englacial flow structures and bed properties, making it one of the most popular tools in glaciological exploration. However, RES data are often subject to ‘strip noise’, caused by internal instrument noise and interference, and/or external environmental interference, which can hamper measurement and interpretation. For example, strip noise can result in reduced power from the bed, affecting the quality of ice thickness measurements and the characterization of subglacial conditions. Here, we present a method for removing strip noise based on combined wavelet and two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier filtering. First, we implement discrete wavelet decomposition on RES data to obtain multi-scale wavelet components. Then, 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spectral analysis is performed on components containing the noise. In the Fourier domain, the 2-D DFT spectrum of strip noise keeps its linear features and can be removed with a ‘targeted masking’ operation. Finally, inverse wavelet transforms are performed on all wavelet components, including strip-removed components, to restore the data with enhanced fidelity. Model tests and field-data processing demonstrate the method removes strip noise well and, incidentally, can remove the strong first reflector from the ice surface, thus improving the general quality of radar data.
Since its rediscovery in 1998, two major threats have been mentioned for the enigmatic Austral Rail Rallus antarcticus: cattle management by burning grass and rushes and predation by American mink Neovison vison. Added to the lack of a protocol to monitor this secretive bird, ever-growing threats make it necessary to study its global situation in depth to take accurate and urgent management decisions. We firstly studied how threats to the Austral Rail currently impact their occupancy and relative density (RD) at a wetland scale and habitat features associated with its presence at survey site scale inside wetlands in Santa Cruz province, Argentina. We additionally developed a monitoring protocol to detect the rail effectively and promptly by studying responses to playback with two different vocalisations at different times of the day and season. Both threats evaluated were negatively related to occupancy and RD of the Austral Rail, especially mink presence appearing to have an additive effect. We propose American mink control as crucial for Austral Rail conservation, while it would also be necessary to conserve a portion of wetlands exempt from burning and cattle presence. At survey sites, its presence was positively related with c.1–1.5 m tall rushes, whilst rails avoided low- density rush areas that resulted after management of rushes with fire to create pasture. To detect rails, both vocalisations can be confidently used at any time of the day and season. The poor knowledge about species ecology, mismanagement of vegetation in wetlands, expansion of American mink in Patagonia, construction on two dams in the Santa Cruz river basin, added to the already modified humidity conditions due to global climate change, force us to suggest that the Austral Rail should be considered as globally ‘Endangered’ (EN), to ensure the consideration of the species in management decisions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Abnormalities in sensorimotor behavior are present in the majority of individuals with ASD and associated with core symptoms. Cortico-cerebellar networks that control sensorimotor behavior have been implicated in ASD, but little is known about their function during sensorimotor actions. The purpose of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine cortical-cerebellar function during feedback-guided motor behavior in ASD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Individuals with ASD (11-30 years; N = 18) and age-matched controls (N = 15) completed a visuomotor task of feedback-guided precision gripping during fMRI. Participants pressed with their right thumb and forefinger on a force transducer while viewing a green FORCE bar on a screen that moved upwards with increased force toward a fixed white TARGET bar. Individuals were instructed to maintain the FORCE bar at the level of the TARGET bar for 24 seconds. Target force levels were set at 20% and 60% of each participant’s maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Force variability was characterized as the coefficient of variation (i.e., standard deviation of the force time series / mean force output; CoV). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mean force did not differ between groups indicating participants were able to follow task demands. Participants with ASD showed increased force variability (F(1,30) = 5.214, p = 0.03) at both 20% (d = .45) and 60% (d = .77) MVC compared to controls. Compared to controls, individuals with ASD showed decreased activation in left angular gyrus during the visuomotor task compared to rest (AG; maximum t = 4.31). Individuals with ASD also showed greater visuomotor activation compared to controls in ipsilateral ventral M1, extending anteriorly into posterior ventral pre-motor cortex (PMv; maximum t = −4.06, cluster size = 38 voxels). This difference reflected the finding that control participants showed a selective deactivation of ipsilateral M1/PMv during visuomotor behavior, whereas individuals with ASD did not show this pattern. A significant group x force interaction was observed for contralateral Crus I activation (maximum t = −2.42) that was driven by an increase in activity during 60% compared to 20% MVC in control participants, while individuals with ASD showed no change in Crus I activation between force levels. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increased force variability in individuals with ASD suggests impaired processing of sensory feedback to guide precision motor behaviors. Individuals with ASD did not show deactivation of right motor cortex during visuomotor behavior relative to rest, suggesting reduced ability to selectively modulate motor cortical output. Reduced activation in left AG may reflect an inability to integrate visual, haptic, and proprioceptive inputs to reactively adjust ongoing motor output. Failure to show force-dependent scaling of Crus I in ASD suggests lateral cerebellar circuits do not adapt sensory prediction and error processes to maintain precision motor output during more demanding conditions. Together, our results demonstrate multiple cortical-cerebellar mechanisms associated with sensorimotor imprecision in ASD.
Edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] differs from grain-type soybean in several aspects, one being that edamame seeds are 65% to 100% larger than grain-type soybean seed. Crop seed size has implications for weed management in grain-type soybean; however, the extent to which this observation holds true for edamame is unknown. Because weed interference continues to be a barrier to domestic edamame production, the objective was to quantify the effect of edamame seed size on the crop’s ability to tolerate weed interference (CT) and the crop’s ability to suppress weeds (WSA). Five edamame cultivars plus one grain-type cultivar were each sorted to create “small” and “large” seed size classes. Seed lots were included in a split–split plot design, whereby an additional experimental factor was presence or absence of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.). Crop and weed emergence and growth were monitored through 8 wk after emergence (WAE). Crop plants from large seed had higher tolerance to A. theophrasti than plants from small seed, as evidenced by crop height, area, and biomass. Edamame seed size had little effect on WSA; however, crop cultivars differentially reduced A. theophrasti leaf area and biomass at 4 and 8 WAE. While both seed size and edamame cultivar influence early-season crop competitive ability, the magnitude of these factors on CT and WSA underscores the importance of considering them not as stand-alone tactics but rather as useful additions to a more comprehensive integrated weed management system.
Adolescence is a critical period for development of depression and understanding of behavioural risk factors is needed to support appropriate preventive strategies. We examined associations between adolescent diet quality and depressive symptoms, cross-sectionally and prospectively, in a large community cohort, adjusting for behavioural and psychosocial covariates.
Prospective community-based cohort study (ROOTS).
Secondary schools in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK.
Study participants (n 603) who completed 4 d diet diaries at age 14 years and reported depressive symptoms (Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ)) at 14 and 17 years of age.
Diet data were processed to derive a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and fish. At age 14 years, a negative association between fruit and vegetable intake and MFQ score was seen in the unadjusted cross-sectional regression model (β=−0·40; 95 % CI −0·71,−0·10), but adjustment for behavioural covariates, including smoking and alcohol consumption, attenuated this association. Fish intake and MDS were not cross-sectionally associated with MFQ score. No prospective associations were found between MDS, fruit and vegetable intake or fish intake and later MFQ score.
Diet quality was not associated with depressive symptoms in mid-adolescence. Previously reported associations in this age range may be due to confounding. Further longitudinal studies are needed that investigate associations between adolescent diet and depression across different time frames and populations, ensuring appropriate adjustment for covariates.
The potential role of fall-seeded cover crops for weed management in edamame [soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is unknown. Field experiments were conducted over three edamame growing seasons to (1) determine the extent to which cover crop–residue management systems influence edamame emergence while selectively suppressing weed density and biomass, and (2) determine whether cultivars differed in emergence in cover crop–residue management systems. Cover crop treatments included a winter-killed oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.), two canola (Brassica napus L.) treatments (early-killed and late-killed), two cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) treatments (early-killed and late-killed), and a bare-soil control. Two spring timings of a cover crop burndown application created the early-killed and late-killed treatments for canola and cereal rye. Twelve soybean cultivars were tested, including 11 edamame cultivars differing in seed size and a grain-type soybean control. Spring residue biomass in cover crop treatments ranged from 438 kg ha−1 for winter-killed radish to 9,003 kg ha−1 for late-killed cereal rye. Cultivars responded similarly to cover crop treatments, and with the exception of late-killed cereal rye, cover crop treatments resulted in similar crop emergence as the bare-soil control. While all cover crop treatments reduced weed biomass 6 wk after planting compared with the bare soil, winter-killed radish and both canola treatments increased weed density. Early-killed cereal rye has potential for weed management in edamame, as evidenced by the fact that the treatment did not interfere with planting or crop establishment, yet reduced weed density 20% and suppressed early-season weed growth 85%.
The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, the causative agent of crayfish plague, is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world, destroying the native crayfish populations throughout Eurasia. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of selected mitochondrial (mt) genes to track the diversity of the crayfish plague pathogen A. astaci. Two sets of primers were developed to amplify the mtDNA of ribosomal rnnS and rnnL subunits. We confirmed two main lineages, with four different haplogroups and five haplotypes among 27 studied A. astaci strains. The haplogroups detected were (1) the A-haplogroup with the a-haplotype strains originating from Orconectes sp., Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus astacus; (2) the B-haplogroup with the b-haplotype strains originating from the P. leniusculus; (3) the D-haplogroup with the d1 and d2-haplotypes strains originating from Procambarus clarkii; and (4) the E-haplogroup with the e-haplotype strains originating from the Orconectes limosus. The described markers are stable and reliable and the results are easily repeatable in different laboratories. The present method has high applicability as it allows the detection and characterization of the A. astaci haplotype in acute disease outbreaks in the wild, directly from the infected crayfish tissue samples.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of FSH and PI3K on the nuclear maturation, viability, steroidogenesis and embryo development of bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). Oocyte maturation was achieved with MIV B, MIV B+100 µM LY294002, MIV B+10 ng/mL follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or MIV B+10 ng/mL FSH+100 µM LY294002 treatments for 22–24 h. After the cultured COCs were denuded, oocytes were separated into those that extruded polar bodies (mature) and those that did not, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for BAX, BCL2, LHR, FSHR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 genes was performed. The culture medium was collected to determine the levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). The trypan blue test was used to study COC viability, and embryo development was evaluated. FSH increased nuclear maturation and PI3K blocked the maturation but did not influence oocyte viability. BAX and BCL2 expression levels in the cumulus cells were only affected by FSH, and the BAX levels decreased after treatment with LY294002. FSH increased the levels of E2 and P4, however inhibition of PI3K decreased E2 levels. MIV B enhanced levels of LHR, FSHR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and HSD17B1, whereas LY294002 inhibited the expression levels of all genes. MIV B+FSH decreased the expression levels of all genes except CYP11A1. LY294002 did not demonstrate any effects in the presence of FSH. Embryo development was significantly decreased when the MIV B+FSH medium was used. In conclusion, FSH controls the steroidogenesis, viability and gene expression in COCs. PI3K plays essential roles in nuclear maturation, steroidogenesis and embryo development.
Vulnerability of satellite-based navigation signals to intentional and unintentional interference calls for a high-level overview of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) threats occurring globally to understand the magnitude and evolution of the problem. Therefore, a mechanism needs to be developed whereby disparate monitoring systems will be capable of contributing to a common entity of basic information about the threat scenarios they experience. This paper begins with a literature survey of 37 state-of-the-art GNSS threat monitoring systems, which have been analysed based on their respective operational features - constellations monitored and whether they possess the capability to perform interference-type classification, spoofing detection, and interference localisation. Also described is a comparative analysis of four GNSS threat reporting formats in use today. Based on these studies, the paper describes the Horizon2020 Standardisation of GNSS Threat Reporting and Receiver Testing through International Knowledge Exchange, Experimentation and Exploitation (STRIKE3) proposed integrated threat monitoring demonstration system and related standardised threat reporting message, to enable a high-level overview of the prevailing international GNSS threat scenarios and its evolution over time.
In this study, in situ and erratic samples from George V Coast (East Antarctica) and southern Eyre Peninsula (Australia) have been used to characterize the microstructural, pressure–temperature and geochronological record of upper amphibolite and granulite facies polymetamorphism in the Mawson Continent to provide insight into the spatial distribution of reworking and the subice geology of the Mawson Continent. Monazite U-Pb data shows that in situ samples from the George V Coast record exclusively 2450–2400 Ma ages, whereas most erratic samples from glacial moraines at Cape Denison and the Red Banks Charnockite record only 1720–1690 Ma ages, consistent with known ages of the Sleaford and Kimban events, respectively. Phase equilibria forward modelling reveals considerable overlap of the thermal character of these two events. Samples with unimodal 1720–1690 Ma Kimban ages reflect either formation after the Sleaford event or complete metamorphic overprinting. Rocks recording only 2450–2400 Ma ages were unaffected by the younger Kimban event, perhaps as a result of unreactive rock compositions inherited from the Sleaford event. Our results suggest the subice geology of the Mawson Continent is a pre-Sleaford-aged terrane with a cover sequence reworked during the Kimban event.
In this Research Communication we assessed factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes using the Brix-refractometer. Colostrum from 536 lambings from one commercial intensive dairy Lacaune farm were analysed for the following factors with potential influence in colostrum quality: (1) ewe parity (n = 84–132), (2) length of previous dry period (PDP) (n = 23–214), (3) age at first lambing (AFL) of primiparous ewes (n = 9–88), (4) lambing season (n = 192 or 344), and (5) year (2011–2013, n = 142–203). Parity significantly affected colostrum quality, with primiparous ewes showing the highest Brix refractometer values (22·6 ± 5·6%, P < 0·0001), though values were similar among multiparous ewes. PDP length also significantly affected colostrum quality: ewes with the shortest PDP showed the worst quality (16·8 ± 4·2%, P < 0·0001), with quality gradually rising with PDP length. Colostrum quality was significantly higher in 2011 (21·0 ± 5·2%) than in 2012 or 2013 (P < 0·0001); this likely reflects the several-fold greater proportion of animals with long PDP in 2011. In contrast, neither AFL nor lambing season significantly affected colostrum quality. These results suggest that parity and PDP length can substantially affect ovine colostrum quality of dairy ewes under intensive management conditions and they further show the usefulness of the Brix refractometer for providing a rough estimation of colostrum quality on-farm. However, further studies are needed to determine a validated cut-off Brix value for identifying good-quality colostra in ovine species.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
In this commentary, we support a complex, mosaic, and multimodal approach to the evolution of intelligence. Using the arcuate fasciculus as an example of discontinuity in the evolution of neurobiological architectures, we argue that the strict dichotomy of modules versus G, adopted by Burkart et al. in the target article, is insufficient to interpret the available statistical and experimental evidence.
Satellite altimetric time series allow high-precision monitoring of ice-sheet mass balance. Understanding elevation changes in these regions is important because outlet glaciers along ice-sheet margins are critical in controlling flow of inland ice. Here we discuss a new airborne altimetry dataset collected as part of the ICECAP (International Collaborative Exploration of the Cryosphere by Airborne Profiling) project over East Antarctica. Using the ALAMO (Airborne Laser Altimeter with Mapping Optics) system of a scanning photon-counting lidar combined with a laser altimeter, we extend the 2003–09 surface elevation record of NASA’s ICESat satellite, by determining cross-track slope and thus independently correcting for ICESat’s cross-track pointing errors. In areas of high slope, cross-track errors result in measured elevation change that combines surface slope and the actual Δz/Δt signal. Slope corrections are particularly important in coastal ice streams, which often exhibit both rapidly changing elevations and high surface slopes. As a test case (assuming that surface slopes do not change significantly) we observe a lack of ice dynamic change at Cook Ice Shelf, while significant thinning occurred at Totten and Denman Glaciers during 2003–09.
Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding-line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). Perturbation experiments specifying spatial variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Steady-state grounding-line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Resolving grounding lines requires inclusion of membrane stresses, a sufficiently small grid size (<500 m), or subgrid interpolation of the grounding line. The latter still requires nominal grid sizes of <5 km. For larger grid spacings, appropriate parameterizations for ice flux may be imposed at the grounding line, but the short-time transient behaviour is then incorrect and different from models that do not incorporate grounding-line parameterizations. The numerical error associated with predicting grounding-line motion can be reduced significantly below the errors associated with parameter ignorance and uncertainties in future scenarios.
This paper explores the nature and chronology of La Tène and early Roman unenclosed agglomerations in central-eastern France. It has been prompted by the discovery of a c. 115 ha La Tène D2b/Augustan (c. 50 BC to AD 15) site close to Bibracte in the Morvan, located around the source of the River Yonne. This complex provides a new perspective on the chronology and role of Late La Tène and early Roman unenclosed settlements, adding further complexity to the story of the development of Late La Tène oppida. It indicates that these ‘agglomerations’ followed remarkably varied chronological trajectories, raising important issues concerning the nature of landscape and social change at the end of the Iron Age.