To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Subsequent to initial exposure to the use of a psychoactive substance, psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD) may or may not develop.
To investigate the relationship between the risk factors for initiation and the subsequent misuse of psychoactive substances.
The lifetime history of illicit substance use and misuse was obtained by telephone interview with 1934 members of female–female twin pairs. We apply a novel model, which estimates the role of genetic and environmental risk factors that influence initiation and those specific to misuse, to three classes of illicit psychoactive substances.
The individual-specific environment and family environment influenced the probability of initiation, but only individual-specific environment had an impact on the probability of subsequent misuse. Genetic factors which influence the risk of initiation and of misuse were identified.
Aetiological factors that influence drug initiation and subsequent misuse are correlated but not identical. Family environment is an important determinant of risk for drug experimentation. Two classes of genetic risk factors act on the liability to PSUD: those that influence the probability of initiation and those that influence the risk of misuse.
The Temperance Boards in Sweden registered individuals for three reasons: public drunkenness, driving under the influence of alcohol and committing a crime in connection with alcohol. We wanted to ascertain whether these three forms of alcohol-related problems result from similar or different genetic and environmental risk factors.
We conducted a trivariate twin analysis of these three causes of registration in all male-female twin pairs of known zygosity born in Sweden, 1926–1949 (n=5177 twin pairs).
Prevalences of registration for public drunkenness, drink-driving and alcohol-related crime were, respectively, 9.0, 3.6 and 4.0%. The best-fitting model had one general genetic and one general familial – environmental factor with specific genetic risk factors for drink-driving and specific familial – environmental risk factors for alcohol-related crime.
The three causes for alcohol registration in Sweden largely reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors. Estimated heritabilities were similar for the three forms of registration. However, specific genetic risk factors exist for drink-driving and specific familial – environmental risk factors for alcohol-related crime. Genetic factors are somewhat less important and familial –environmental factors more important for public drunkenness than for drink-driving and alcohol related crime.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.