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To estimate the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of youth and young adults in major Canadian cities with self-reported vegetarian dietary practices and examine efforts to alter their diets.
Data were collected in autumn 2016 via web-based surveys. Respondents reported vegetarian dietary practices (vegan, vegetarian or pescatarian) and efforts in the preceding year to consume more or less of several nutrients, food groups and/or foods with particular attributes. Logistic regression models examined sociodemographic correlates of each vegetarian dietary practice and differences in other eating practices by diet type.
Participants were recruited from five major Canadian cities.
Youth and young adults, aged 16–30 years (n 2566).
Overall, 13·6 % of respondents reported vegetarian dietary practices: 6·6 % vegetarian, 4·5 % pescatarian and 2·5 % vegan. Sex, race/ethnicity, self-reported frequency of using the Nutrition Facts table and health literacy were significantly correlated with self-reported vegetarian dietary practice (P < 0·01 for all). Efforts to consume more fruits and vegetables (66·8 %) and protein (54·8 %), and less sugar (61·3 %) and processed foods (54·7 %), were prevalent overall. Respondents with vegetarian dietary practices were more likely to report efforts to consume fewer carbohydrates and animal products, and more organic, locally produced, ethically sourced/sustainably sourced/fair trade and non-GM foods (P < 0·01 for all), compared with those without these reported dietary practices.
Nearly 14 % of the sampled youth and young adults in major Canadian cities reported vegetarian dietary practices and may be especially likely to value and engage in behaviours related to health-conscious diets and sustainable food production.
The aim of this study was to update the literature on interventions for carers of people with dementia published between 2006 and 2016 and evaluate the efficacy of psychoeducational programs and psychotherapeutic interventions on key mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, burden, and quality of life).
A meta-analysis was carried out of randomized controlled trials of carer interventions using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
The majority of studies were conducted in Western and Southern Europe or the United States and recruited carers of people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia grouped as a whole. The most commonly used outcome measures were depression and burden across studies. The updated evidence suggested that psychoeducation-skill building interventions delivered face-to-face can better impact on burden. Psychotherapeutic interventions underpinned by Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) models demonstrated strong empirical support for treating anxiety and depression and these effects were not affected by the mode of delivery (i.e. face-to-face vs. technology). A modern CBT approach, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), seemed to be particularly beneficial for carers experiencing high levels of anxiety.
Future research needs to explore the efficacy of interventions on multiple clinical outcomes and which combination of interventions (components) would have the most significant effects when using CBT. The generalization of treatment effects in different countries and carers of different types of dementia also need to be addressed. More research is needed to test the efficacy of modern forms of CBT, such as ACT.
TO apply interim surveillance definitions of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases to 1 year of data from the provincewide surveillance system of Manitoba, Canada, to determine the epidemiology of CDI incident cases in a population.
CDI cases were categorized with interim surveillance definitions developed by an ad hoc C. difficile surveillance working group. Incident cases recorded in the provincial CDI database between July 2005 and June 2006 were linked to the provincial hospitalization and nursing home databases and analyzed.
One thousand six incident cases were identified over 1 year. Five hundred fifteen (51%) cases were associated with and began in a healthcare facility (HCF), whereas 275 (27%) were associated with and began in the community. An additional 131 (13%) cases were HCF associated but began in the community, while 85 (8%) were of indeterminate origin. Cases of HCF-associated CDI occurred in patients who were older than did cases of community-associated CDI (P < .0001). The provincial rate of community-onset cases was 23.4 per 100,000 person-years, and rates varied among geographic areas. HCF-associated CDI rates among the 10 largest hospitals varied from 0.5 to 8.4 per 10,000 patient-days. The time to CDI onset after hospital admission indicated that 25% of nosocomial cases began by the 8th day, and 50% began by the 17th day.
Although the majority of CDI cases were associated with exposure to a HCF, 40% of incident CDI began in the community. Populations with HCF- and community-associated CDI demonstrated significantly different age distributions. The wide variation of rates among HCFs requires explanation. The high percentage of incident cases in the community warrants increased study.
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