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The Yellow Cardinal Gubernatrix cristata is a globally endangered passerine from the southern cone of South America. Because of its conspicuous plumage and very attractive song, it suffers considerably from illegal pet trade. The largest remaining populations are found in Argentina, but no coordinated efforts have been made thus far to understand better its current distribution and conservation status. During three annual surveys supported by a citizen science programme, more than 140 volunteers surveyed 644 geographical points during spring and detected 221 Yellow Cardinals. Based on the survey results, we evaluated the presence of cardinals within protected areas in Argentina and found that the species was only detected in four of them, two of which were private reserves with a low level of protection. We also found that the species was not restricted to the ‘Espinal’ ecoregion, but also inhabited ‘Monte’ and ‘Chaco’ ecoregions, which are generally drier. This citizen science programme allowed us to obtain up-to-date information on the remaining populations of the Yellow Cardinal and helped to increase public awareness about the conservation problems faced by the species. We propose some future strategies for monitoring Yellow Cardinals and taking informed conservation decisions.
Tubular pottery comprises certain peculiar artifacts that were produced by late Holocene complex hunter-gatherer societies in southeastern South America for unknown purposes. Some authors have related them to mortuary behaviour which has also been suggested by historical sources, while others have considered domestic use. In this paper, the technical, compositional and functional properties of these artifacts are explored in order to contrast both hypotheses, given an example of how technical analysis allows the identification of special pottery within archeological contexts. This analysis includes a study of the fabrics involved using low and high magnification, thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and fatty acid profiles. The results show that these tubular artifacts are not fit structurally for utilitarian purposes and show no evidence of domestic use. Based on these results and on historical data, it can be postulated that they were used as part of mortuary rituals, thus becoming part of the select global group of pottery manufactured exclusively for mortuary purposes.
Pascual y Cabo and Rothman (2012) and Kupisch and Rothman (2018) argue against the use of term incomplete to characterize the grammars of heritage speakers, claiming that it reflects a negative evaluation of the linguistic knowledge of these bilingual speakers. We examine the reasons for and against the use of “incomplete” across acquisition contexts and argue that its use is legitimate on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Our goal is to present arguments for using the term, not to evaluate the scientific validity of incomplete acquisition over other possible accounts. Although our conclusion is that the term should not be abandoned, we advocate a position whereby researchers consider the possible negative impact of the terminology they use and how they use it. This position aims to resolve the tension between the need to prioritize scientific effectiveness and the need to avoid terminology that can be negatively misconstrued by the general public.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
This paper describes a 4-month pilot study that tested the suitability of a physical activity intervention for first graders (children aged 6 and 7 years) in a public school in Santiago, Chile. Teachers were trained to deliver the programme in the classroom during the school day. Teachers were surveyed to determine if this intervention fit within their curriculum and classroom routines and they reported in a focus group that it was suitable for them. All children actively participated in the programme and positive changes in their attitudes towards physical activity were observed by their teachers. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and hand grip strength were measured in the students. A significant reduction was observed in children with high waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile, and in mean systolic blood pressure. However, statistical power values for those comparisons were rather low. Anthropometry and hand grip strength were not modified. The latter calculations and the lack of a control group are showing the weaknesses of this pilot study and that further research with a larger sample size and an experimental design is strongly needed.
This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach – combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data – in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis (LAH) in L2 Spanish. Data elicited through one comprehension and three oral tasks with varying degrees of experimental control show that the emergence of temporal markings is determined mainly by the dynamic/non-dynamic contrast (whether a verb is a state or an event) as beginner and intermediate speakers use Preterit with event verbs but Imperfect mainly with state verbs. One crucial finding is that although advanced learners use typical Preterit–telic associations in the least controlled oral tasks, as predicted by the LAH, this pattern is often reversed in tasks designed to include non-prototypical (and infrequent) form–meaning contexts. The results of the comprehension task also show that the Preterit-event and Imperfect-state associations observed in the production data determine the interpretation that learners assign to the Preterit and the Imperfect as well. These results show that beginner and intermediate learners treat event verbs (achievements, accomplishments and activities) in Spanish as a single class that they associate with Preterit morphology. We argue that dynamicity contrasts, and not telicity, affect learners’ use of past tense forms during early stages of acquisition.
The morphometrical analysis of gnammas (weathering pits) in granite landscapes has been used to establish the relative chronology of recent erosive surfaces and to provide the weathering history in a region. To test the validity of gnammas as relative chronometer indicators, and the reliability of the obtained weathering record, two sites have been studied in Serra da Estrela, Portugal. The first site is within the limits of the glacier that existed in these mountains during the last glaciation, whereas the second site is located in an unglaciated sector of the mountains, which preserves a longer record of weathering in the bedrock surface. The number of gnamma weathering phases recorded in the latter site (8) is larger than those from the former (6). Correlation between both measurement stations based on morphometrical criteria is excellent for the younger six weathering phases (1 to 6). Consequently, the parameter used for relative chronology (δ-value) has been verified to be age dependent, although absolute values are modulated by microclimate due to altitude variations. The weathering record was essentially duplicated once the surfaces at both sites were exposed, demonstrating the reliability of gnamma evolution as a post-glacial environmental indicator for the region.
A bibliographical and herbarium investigation on the pollination syndrome of Mexican columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae) was conducted. Most Mexican species of columnar cacti show a chiropterophilic-pollination syndrome and they flower synchronously in March to May. The floral biology, reproductive system and visitors (to both fruits and flowers) of Neobuxbaumia tetetzo, the most abundant and dominant columnar cactus of succulent forest in the Tehuacan Valley, were studied. This species reached densities of c. 1200 individuals ha−1. The bats Leptonycteris curasoae and Choeronycteris mexicana were its only pollinators, whilst a more diverse array of visitors disperse seeds. Contrary to findings for multiple pollinators of columnar cacti in extratropical deserts in North America, the relationships between N. tetetzo and nectar-feeding bats was strong and tightly coupled in Mexico.
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