The proximity of minerals found in human hard tissues may influence cell phenotype. Since cells respond to a range of environmental cues, this study sought to identify the influence of two apatite-based microparticles, hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluoroapatite (FA), upon dental and bone cells. After bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), 7F2 osteoblasts and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were plated into media with or without HA or FA particles, the cells were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, collagen I production, osteocalcin production, and mineralization for two weeks. The BMSCs and DPSCs in media without any microparticles produced more ALP compared to those with microparticles from Day 5 forward. In addition, the collagen I and osteocalcin production in cultures without microparticles was higher than in cultures containing either HA or FA particles. While some studies have shown increased osteogeonic differentiation in the presence of mineral particles, those studies used nanoparticles that were able to be internalized by the cells and were smaller than the microparticles used in this study.