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Tubular pottery comprises certain peculiar artifacts that were produced by late Holocene complex hunter-gatherer societies in southeastern South America for unknown purposes. Some authors have related them to mortuary behaviour which has also been suggested by historical sources, while others have considered domestic use. In this paper, the technical, compositional and functional properties of these artifacts are explored in order to contrast both hypotheses, given an example of how technical analysis allows the identification of special pottery within archeological contexts. This analysis includes a study of the fabrics involved using low and high magnification, thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and fatty acid profiles. The results show that these tubular artifacts are not fit structurally for utilitarian purposes and show no evidence of domestic use. Based on these results and on historical data, it can be postulated that they were used as part of mortuary rituals, thus becoming part of the select global group of pottery manufactured exclusively for mortuary purposes.
Despite the prevalence of quantitative approaches in applied linguistics (AL) and second language acquisition (SLA) research (Gass, 2009), evidence indicates a need for improvement in analyzing and reporting SLA data (e.g., Larson-Hall & Plonsky, 2015). However, to improve quantitative research, researchers must possess the statistical knowledge necessary to conduct quality research. This study assesses AL and SLA researchers’ knowledge of key statistical concepts on a statistical knowledge test. One hundred and ninety-eight AL and SLA researchers from North America and Europe responded to 26 discipline-specific questions designed to measure participants’ ability to (a) understand basic statistical concepts and procedures, (b) interpret statistical analyses, and (c) critically evaluate statistical information. Results indicate that participants generally understood basic descriptive statistics, but performance on items requiring more advanced statistical knowledge was lower. Quantitative research orientation, number of statistics courses taken, and frequent use of statistics textbooks had positive influences on researchers’ statistical knowledge.
We investigated human understanding of different network visualizations in a large-scale online experiment. Three types of network visualizations were examined: node-link and two different sorting variants of matrix representations on a representative social network of either 20 or 50 nodes. Understanding of the network was quantified using task time and accuracy metrics on questions that were derived from an established task taxonomy. The sample size in our experiment was more than an order of magnitude larger (N = 600) than in previous research, leading to high statistical power and thus more precise estimation of detailed effects. Specifically, high statistical power allowed us to consider modern interaction capabilities as part of the evaluated visualizations, and to evaluate overall learning rates as well as ambient (implicit) learning. Findings indicate that participant understanding was best for the node-link visualization, with higher accuracy and faster task times than the two matrix visualizations. Analysis of participant learning indicated a large initial difference in task time between the node-link and matrix visualizations, with matrix performance steadily approaching that of the node-link visualization over the course of the experiment. This research is reproducible as the web-based module and results have been made available at: https://osf.io/qct84/.
Probabilistic approaches to phylogenetic inference have recently gained traction in paleontological studies. Because they directly model processes of evolutionary change, probabilistic methods facilitate a deeper assessment of variability in evolutionary patterns by weighing evidence for competing models. Although phylogenetic methods used in paleontological studies have generally assumed that evolution proceeds by splitting cladogenesis, extensions to previous models help explore the potential for morphological and temporal data to provide differential support for contrasting modes of evolutionary divergence. Recent methodological developments have integrated ancestral relationships into probabilistic phylogenetic methods. These new approaches rely on parameter-rich models and sophisticated inferential methods, potentially obscuring the respective contributions of data and models. In this study, we describe a simple likelihoodist approach that combines probabilistic models of morphological evolution and fossil preservation to reconstruct both cladogenetic and anagenetic relationships. By applying this approach to a data set of fossil hominins, we demonstrate the capability of existing models to unveil evidence for anagenesis presented by morphological and temporal data. This evidence was previously recognized by qualitative assessments, but largely ignored by quantitative phylogenetic analyses. For example, we find support for directly ancestral relationships in multiple lineages: Sahelanthropus is ancestral to later hominins; Australopithecus anamensis is ancestral to Australopithecus afarensis; Australopithecus garhi is ancestral to Homo; Homo antecessor is ancestral to Homo heidelbergensis, which in turn is ancestral to both Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. By accommodating direct ancestry in phylogenetics, quantitative results align more closely with previous qualitative expectations.
Immigration federalism scholarship has established that state and local government policies can make federally defined immigration status more or less consequential. Drawing primarily on focus groups and interviews with 184 undocumented students attending the University of California, we suggest that institutional policies work alongside state and local efforts to mediate the consequences of illegality for undocumented students. We find that the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, state-funded financial aid policies, and university support programs all facilitate the integration of undocumented students by increasing access to higher education and enabling fuller participation. Although federal policies contribute to persistent barriers to academic engagement and professional development, we show that universities can intervene to improve educational experiences and opportunities. Ultimately, we argue that university policies are a key site for intervening in immigration policy and constructing immigrant illegality.
People with bipolar disorder typically require long-term pharmacological treatment to prevent episodes of depression or mania. However, evidence-based guidelines are often not followed by prescribers and, in some countries, prescribing of lithium is in decline. Polypharmacy is also common in bipolar disorder.
To employ a data linkage approach to describe and evaluate prescribing patterns in bipolar disorder in Scotland between 2009 and 2016.
By linking prescribing data to the electronic Scottish Morbidity Records, we identified a cohort of 23 135 patients with bipolar disorder who were prescribed psychotropic medication between 2009 and 2016. We examined trends in proportions of patients prescribed each of six drug categories. Random effects logistic models examined change in prescribing over years of interest.
The most common form of treatment was antidepressant monotherapy (24.96%), with only 5.90% of patients receiving lithium monotherapy. Prescribing of antipsychotics and anti-epileptics increased from 2009 to 2016 (antipsychotics: odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.15–1.18; anti-epileptics: odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.32–1.36), whereas prescribing of lithium decreased (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.82–0.85). Prescribing of valproate decreased from 2009–2016 in women, but increased in men (women: odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.90–0.97; men: odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.04–1.18).
Antidepressant monotherapy was the most common form of treatment for bipolar disorder in Scotland and prescribing of lithium has declined between 2009 and 2016. The findings are concerning and represent a gap between treatment guidelines and clinical practice.
The working environment may have a significant effect on response to treatment of depression and this issue has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the scientific literature. There is evidence showing that being engaged in high-level positions can be an obstacle to the success of treatment. This article discusses the few evidence in the literature and some of the possible mechanisms involved. Specific personality attributes and difficulties in adapting to depression may delay access to care and may also reduce treatment compliance. The presence of stress in jobs that require high cognitive function and lack of social support may be elements that hinder the recovery process. Residual symptoms that impact on cognitive functions may undermine adherence to treatment and adversely affect the response. The implications of these issues are potentially relevant for clinical practice in the treatment of depression and for future research.
The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment.
This study included 2182 FEP individuals recruited across six countries, as part of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Symptom ratings were analysed using multidimensional item response modelling in Mplus to estimate five theory-based models of psychosis. We used multiple regression models to examine demographic and context factors associated with symptom dimensions.
A bifactor model, composed of one general factor and five specific dimensions of positive, negative, disorganization, manic and depressive symptoms, best-represented associations among ratings of psychotic symptoms. Positive symptoms were more common in ethnic minority groups. Urbanicity was associated with a higher score on the general factor. Men presented with more negative and less depressive symptoms than women. Early age-at-first-contact with psychiatric services was associated with higher scores on negative, disorganized, and manic symptom dimensions.
Our results suggest that the bifactor model of psychopathology holds across diagnostic categories of non-affective and affective psychosis at FEP, and demographic and context determinants map onto general and specific symptom dimensions. These findings have implications for tailoring symptom-specific treatments and inform research into the mood-psychosis spectrum.
Identify factors referred to as barriers and facilitators that can prevent or assist safe injection practices in ambulatory care settings to guide quality improvement.
In this mixed-methods study, we utilized observations and interviews.
This study was conducted at ambulatory clinics at a midwestern academic medical center from May through August 2017. Sites included a variety of clinical settings that performed intramuscular, intradermal, intravenous, or intra-articular injections.
PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS
Direct observations of injections and interviews of ambulatory care staff were conducted. An observation checklist was created, including standards of injection safety from nationally recognized guidelines. Interview questions were developed using the System Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded by 2 investigators.
In total, 106 observations and 36 interviews were completed at 21 clinics. Injection safety standards with the lowest adherence included using needleless access devices to prepare injections (33%) and the proper use of multidose vials (<80%). Of 819 coded interview segments, 461 (56.3%) were considered facilitators of safe injection practices. The most commonly identified barriers were patient movement during administration, feeling rushed, and inadequate staffing. The most commonly identified facilitators were availability of supplies, experience in the practice area, and availability of safety needles and prefilled syringes.
Perceived barriers and facilitators to infection control elements of injection safety are interconnected with SEIPS elements of persons, organizations, technologies, tasks, and environment. Direct observations demonstrated that knowledge of safety injection standards does not necessarily translate to best practices and may not match self-reported data.
This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 °C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.
Alcohol use is commonly initiated during adolescence, with earlier onset known to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Altered function in neural reward circuitry is thought to increase the risk for AUD. To test the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol misuse primes the brain for alcohol-related psychopathology in early adulthood, we examined whether adolescent alcohol consumption rates predicted reward responsivity in the ventral striatum (VS), and in turn, AUD symptoms in adulthood.
A total of 139 low income, racially diverse urban males reported on their alcohol use at ages 11, 12, 15, and 17; completed self-reports of personality, psychiatric interviews, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan at age 20; and completed a psychiatric interview at age 22. We measured adolescent alcohol use trajectories using latent growth curve modeling and measured neural responses to monetary reward using a VS region of interest. We tested indirect effects of adolescent alcohol use on AUD symptoms at age 22 via VS reward-related reactivity at age 20.
Greater acceleration in adolescent alcohol use predicted increased VS response during reward anticipation at age 20. VS reactivity to reward anticipation at age 20 predicted AUD symptoms at age 22, over and above concurrent symptoms. Accelerated adolescent alcohol use predicted AUD symptoms in early adulthood via greater VS reactivity to reward anticipation.
Prospective findings support a pathway through which adolescent alcohol use increases the risk for AUD in early adulthood by impacting reward-related neural functioning. These results highlight increased VS reward-related reactivity as a biomarker for AUD vulnerability.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Several reports have shown that doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in biomedical research pursue diverse careers that advance science meaningful to society. Several groups have proposed 3-tier career taxonomy to showcase these outcomes. This 3-tier taxonomy will be a valuable resource for institutions committed to greater transparency in reporting outcomes, to not only be transparent in reporting their own institutional data but also to lend greater power to a central repository.
Despite conservation discourses in Madagascar increasingly emphasizing the role of customary institutions for wildlife management, we know relatively little about their effectiveness. Here, we used semi-structured interviews with 54 adults in eight villages to investigate whether sacred caves and taboos offer conservation benefits for cave-dwelling bats in and around Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, south-west Madagascar. Although some caves were described as sites of spiritual significance for the local communities, most interviewees (c. 76%) did not recognize their present-day sacred status. Similarly, only 22% of the interviewees recognized taboos inhibiting bat hunting and consumption. Legal protection of bats and caves through protected areas was often more widely acknowledged than customary regulations, although up to 30% of the interviewees reported consumption of bats within their communities. Guano extraction was often tolerated in sacred caves in exchange for economic compensation. This may benefit bat conservation by creating incentives for bat protection, although extraction is often performed through destructive and exploitative practices with little benefit for local communities. In view of these results our study questions the extent to which sacred sites, taboos and protected areas offer protection for bats in Madagascar. These results support previous studies documenting the erosion of customary institutions in Madagascar, including the loss of the spiritual values underpinning sacred sites. Given that many Malagasy bats are cave-dwelling species and that most depend on the customary protection of these sites, it is important to obtain a better understanding of the complex interactions between spiritual practices, taboos and protected areas in sustaining bat diversity.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of FSH and PI3K on the nuclear maturation, viability, steroidogenesis and embryo development of bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). Oocyte maturation was achieved with MIV B, MIV B+100 µM LY294002, MIV B+10 ng/mL follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or MIV B+10 ng/mL FSH+100 µM LY294002 treatments for 22–24 h. After the cultured COCs were denuded, oocytes were separated into those that extruded polar bodies (mature) and those that did not, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for BAX, BCL2, LHR, FSHR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 genes was performed. The culture medium was collected to determine the levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). The trypan blue test was used to study COC viability, and embryo development was evaluated. FSH increased nuclear maturation and PI3K blocked the maturation but did not influence oocyte viability. BAX and BCL2 expression levels in the cumulus cells were only affected by FSH, and the BAX levels decreased after treatment with LY294002. FSH increased the levels of E2 and P4, however inhibition of PI3K decreased E2 levels. MIV B enhanced levels of LHR, FSHR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and HSD17B1, whereas LY294002 inhibited the expression levels of all genes. MIV B+FSH decreased the expression levels of all genes except CYP11A1. LY294002 did not demonstrate any effects in the presence of FSH. Embryo development was significantly decreased when the MIV B+FSH medium was used. In conclusion, FSH controls the steroidogenesis, viability and gene expression in COCs. PI3K plays essential roles in nuclear maturation, steroidogenesis and embryo development.
The challenges of detecting and localising Fast Radio Bursts in real time can be met with the use of Phased Array Feeds. One such system, capable of creating up to 36 simultaneous beams, is currently being commissioned at the Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany following testing at the 64 m Parkes radio telescope. The PAFINDER (Phased Array Feed FRB Finder) pipeline will be used with this receiver to enable real–time single–pulse detection and localisation.