To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Medications to treat opioid use disorder (mOUD) are available and can save lives, but are underutilized. We hypothesize that the rate of prescribing varies by treatment facility and these differences will shed light on barriers and facilitators to mOUD utilization. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed an exploratory analysis in MD Clone, a platform which generates non-identifiable synthesized data based on real patient data in the electronic health record (EHR) of St. Louis based hospitals. Our query included adults aged 18-70 with an OUD diagnosis using ICD-9 of -10 codes (opioid abuse, opioid dependence, opioid poisoning, opioid withdrawal) occurring between 2013 and 2022 along with prescriptions for buprenorphine, methadone, or naloxone within 7 days of the condition being entered in the record. We compared the rate of medication prescription within 7 days across settings and facilities where the patients were seen. We propose to replicate this analysis in actual patient records from the EHR following IRB approval. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our synthetic data comprised 24600 patient diagnoses. After filtering for patients seen in the ER or inpatient 16235 patients remained in the data set. Of these, 4376 fell into one of the categories that clearly warrant treatment with medication. Out of 4376 patients with a qualifying OUD related condition, only 815 (18.6%) received a prescription for any of the medications. Rates of prescribing within facilities varied between 67.2% of eligible patients receiving a prescription at a rural location to 0% at some urban centers. We anticipate similar findings from analysis of patient records obtained from the EHR. We will extend our analysis to explore factors which may be driving the wide difference in prescribing to better understand barriers and facilitators to mOUD utilization. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We identify under-utilization with differences across facilities in prescribing mOUD based on preliminary work in synthetic data. If true, this represents a gap in care and opportunity for intervention. By replicating the MD Clone results in patient data from the EHR we will confirm this finding and increase acceptability to clinicians.
Accelerating innovation translation is a priority for improving healthcare and health. Although dissemination and implementation (D&I) research has made significant advances over the past decade, it has attended primarily to the implementation of long-standing, well-established practices and policies. We present a conceptual architecture for speeding translation of promising innovations as candidates for iterative testing in practice. Our framework to Design for Accelerated Translation (DART) aims to clarify whether, when, and how to act on evolving evidence to improve healthcare. We view translation of evidence to practice as a dynamic process and argue that much evidence can be acted upon even when uncertainty is moderately high, recognizing that this evidence is evolving and subject to frequent reevaluation. The DART framework proposes that additional factors – demand, risk, and cost, in addition to the evolving evidence base – should influence the pace of translation over time. Attention to these underemphasized factors may lead to more dynamic decision-making about whether or not to adopt an emerging innovation or de-implement a suboptimal intervention. Finally, the DART framework outlines key actions that will speed movement from evidence to practice, including forming meaningful stakeholder partnerships, designing innovations for D&I, and engaging in a learning health system.
Context: The detection and replication of genes involved in psychiatric outcome has been notoriously difficult. Phenotypic measurement has been offered as one explanation, although most of this discussion has focused on problems with binary diagnoses. Objective: This article focuses on two additional components of phenotypic measurement that deserve further consideration in evaluating genetic associations: (1) the measure used to reflect the outcome of interest, and (2) the developmental stage of the study population. We focus our discussion of these issues around the construct of impulsivity and externalizing disorders, and the association of these measures with a specific gene, GABRA2. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were analyzed from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism Phase IV assessment of adolescents and young adults (ages 12–26; N = 2,128). Main Outcome Measures: Alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, childhood conduct disorder, and adult antisocial personality disorder symptoms were measured by psychiatric interview; Achenbach youth/adult self-report externalizing scale; Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking scale; Barratt Impulsivity scale; NEO extraversion and consciousness. Results: GABRA2 was associated with subclinical levels of externalizing behavior as measured by the Achenbach in both the adolescent and young adult samples. Contrary to previous associations in adult samples, it was not associated with clinical-level DSM symptom counts of any externalizing disorders in these younger samples. There was also association with sensation-seeking and extraversion, but only in the adolescent sample. There was no association with the Barratt impulsivity scale or conscientiousness. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the pathway by which GABRA2 initially confers risk for eventual alcohol problems begins with a predisposition to sensation-seeking early in adolescence. The findings support the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity and demonstrate that both the measure used to assess a construct of interest and the age of the participants can have profound implications for the detection of genetic associations.
This chapter reviews the family studies supporting the role of genetics and recent molecular genetic results. Mapping studies using linkage and association methods have had modest success to date despite difficulties in replication between studies. Linkage studies have shown the best support for chromosomal regions: 6q, 8q, 9p, 13q, 14q, and 22q. Several candidate genes first identified in studies of schizophrenia have shown reproducible association in bipolar disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying a few genes with small effects on risk. The data overall suggest a high level of both genic and allelic heterogeneity, as well as, a complex mode of inheritance. The coming availability of economical whole genome sequencing promises availability of complete genomic information. This, and large samples now being collected, may provide the datasets necessary to unravel the genetic complexities of this illness.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.