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To simplify body weight measurement and, particularly, to encourage children and their parents to participate in the Italian nutritional surveillance system OKkio alla SALUTE, children were measured with clothes and then the weight was corrected for the estimated weight of the clothes. In the present study we compared the children's weight measured in underwear, as recommended by the WHO (WWHO), with that obtained using the OKkio alla SALUTE protocol (WOK) and investigated how the latter affects the calculation of BMI and the assessment of overweight and obesity prevalence.
Weight (twice in close sequence, with and without clothing) and height were measured. A checklist was used to describe the type of clothing worn. The estimated weight of clothing was subtracted from the WOK. BMI was calculated considering both values of weight and height; ponderal status was defined using both the International Obesity Task Force and WHO BMI cut-offs.
Thirty-seven third grade classes of thirteen primary schools in Rome and in two towns in the Lazio Region were recruited.
The anthropometric measurements were taken on 524 children aged 8–9 years.
The error in the calculation of BMI from WOK was very low, 0·005 kg/m2 (95 % CI −0·185, 0·195 kg/m2); the agreement between the percentages of overweight (not including obesity) and obese children calculated with the two methods was very close to 1 (κ = 0·98).
The error in BMI and in nutritional classification can be considered minor in a surveillance system for monitoring overweight/obesity, but eases the procedure for measuring children.
Self-harm is a direct, socially unacceptable,repetitive behavior that causes minor to moderate physical injury without suicidal intent. It is also a significant and growing concern among prison inmates, although it has been rarely studied. In the present study, we aimed to investigate demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables associated to this critical bahaviour in a high risk sample of 1,555 male prisoners.
Prisoners were interviewed about their history of self-mutilation, psychiatric history,and forensic history. The prisoners completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.
Eighteen percent of prisoners had a history of self-harm. They more frequently reported childhood traumas, were more likely to be unmarried, previously imprisoned, tested positive for substance abuse, had a history of suicide attempt, and more likely showed violent tendencies.
Self-harm among prisoners is common, being found in almost 20% of the subjects in our sample. Self-mutilation among prisoners appears to be multi-factorial with developmental, socio-demographic, psychiatric, and personality determinants.
Self-harm is associated with critical behaviors such as violence, substance abuse and suicide attempts, which represent major critical problems in contention environments.
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