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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of (−)-OSU6162 in doses up to 30 mg b.i.d. in patients suffering from mental fatigue following stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI).
This 4 + 4 weeks double-blind randomised cross-over study included 30 patients afflicted with mental fatigue following a stroke or head trauma occurring at least 12 months earlier. Efficacy was assessed using the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS), the Self-rating Scale for Affective Syndromes [Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS)], the Frenchay Activity Index (FAI), and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Safety was evaluated by recording spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs).
There were significant differences on the patients’ total FAI scores (p = 0.0097), the subscale FAI outdoor scores (p = 0.0243), and on the trail making test (TMT-B) (p = 0.0325) in favour of (−)-OSU6162 treatment. Principal component analysis showed a clear overall positive treatment effect in 10 of 28 patients; those who responded best to treatment had their greatest improvements on the MFS. Reported AEs were mild or moderate in severity and did not differ between the (−)-OSU6162 and the placebo period.
The most obvious beneficial effects of (−)-OSU6162 were on the patients’ activity level, illustrated by the improvement on the FAI scale. Moreover, a subgroup of patients showed substantial improvements on the MFS. Based on these observed therapeutic effects, in conjunction with the good tolerability of (−)-OSU6162, this compound may offer promise for treating at least part of the symptomatology in patients suffering from stroke- or TBI-induced mental fatigue.
The aim of this study was to assess exercise capacity, physical activity, and health-related quality of life within a broad and unselected group of adults with CHD.
From April 2009 to February 2014, 1310 patients were assessed for suitability to participate in this single-centre cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and forty-seven (57%) patients were included, performed a submaximal bicycle test, and answered questionnaires regarding physical activity and health-related quality of life. Exercise capacity, physical activity, and health-related quality of life were compared with reference values and correlations were studied.
The exercise capacities of men and women with CHD were 58.7 and 66.3%, respectively, of reference values. Approximately, 20–25% of the patients did not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity. In addition, men scored significantly less points on 7 out of 10 scales of health-related quality of life and women in 6 out of 10 scales, compared with reference values. The strongest correlation was between exercise capacity and the Short Form-36 (physical function).
Exercise capacity was impaired in all adults with CHD, including those with less complicated CHD. One-quarter of the patients did not achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. Exercise tests followed by individualised exercise prescriptions may be offered to all patients with CHD aiming to increase exercise capacity, levels of physical activity, improve health-related quality of life, and reduce the risk of acquired life-style diseases.
Adult foreign language acquisition is challenging, and the degree of success varies among individuals. Anatomical differences in brain structure prior to training can partly explain why some learn more than others. We followed a sample of conscript interpreters undergoing intense language training to study learning-related changes in white-matter microstructure (FA, MD, RD and AD) and associations between differences in brain structure prior to training with acquired language proficiency. No evidence for changes in white matter microstructure relative to a control group was found. Starting values of RD, AD and MD were positively related to final test scores of language proficiency, corroborating earlier findings in the field and highlighting the need for further study of how initial brain structure influences and interacts with learning outcomes.
We are very happy that someone has finally tried to make sense of rationalization. But we are worried about the representational structure assumed by Cushman, particularly the “boxology” belief-desire model depicting the rational planner, and it seems to us he fails to accommodate many of the interpersonal aspects of representational exchange.
This study evaluated the effects of organic agriculture manuring systems on carrot (Daucus carota) root morphology and sugar and polyacetylene content. Carrots were harvested three times per season 2006–2007 in a long-term field experiment at Skilleby research farm, Sweden. The effects of pelleted chicken manure, fresh farmyard manure and composted farmyard manure (COM) were compared against control plots left unmanured since the field experiment started in 1991. The carrots were analyzed for root size, root shape, amount of soluble sugars and amount of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes. Differences between manuring systems were found to be smaller than the variation between harvest years and harvest occasions, probably due to the grass-clover ley included in the crop rotation system. On an average for the six harvests, manuring with COM increased root length by 6% compared with fertilizing with pelleted chicken manure. Carrots fertilized with pelleted chicken manure also had 6–7% lower total soluble sugar content than carrots manured with 50 t ha−1 of composted or fresh manure. The falcarinol to total falcarinol-type polyacetylenes ratio was 15.4% in carrots manured with 50 t ha−1 of composted or fresh manure and 14.7% in carrots fertilized with pelleted chicken manure. Seasonal fluctuations in falcarinol-type polyacetylenes were more pronounced in carrots manured with fresh or composted manure than in carrots fertilized with pelleted chicken manure. The results suggest that manuring organic carrots with compost may be the most beneficial strategy, at least in systems where fertilizer is applied only once per crop rotation, whether directly to the carrot crop or in the preceding crop.
Nanostructured tungsten trioxide films were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different working pressures Ptot = 1–4 Pa. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The films were found to exhibit predominantly monoclinic structures and have similar band gap, Eg ≈ 2.8 eV, with a pronounced Urbach tail extending down to 2.5 eV. At low Ptot, strained film structures formed, which were slightly reduced and showed polaron absorption in the near-infrared region. The photodegradation rate of stearic acid was found to correlate with the stoichiometry and polaron absorption. This is explained by a recombination mechanism, whereby photoexcited electron–hole pairs recombine with polaron states in the band gap. The quantum yield decreased by 50% for photon energies close to Eg due to photoexcitations to band gap states lying below the O2affinity level.
The Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression (GSA) project was launched at the Abo Akademi University in Turku, Finland in 2005 and has so far undertaken two major population-based data collections involving twins and siblings of twins. To date, it consists of about 14,000 individuals (including 1,147 informative monozygotic twin pairs, 1,042 informative same-sex dizygotic twin pairs, 741 informative opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs). Participants have been recruited through the Central Population Registry of Finland and were 18–49 years of age at the time of the data collections. Saliva samples for DNA genotyping (n = 4,278) and testosterone analyses (n = 1,168) were collected in 2006. The primary focus of the data collections has been on sexuality (both sexual functioning and sexual behavior) and aggressive behavior. This paper provides an overview of the data collections as well as an outline of the phenotypes and biological data assembled within the project. A detailed overview of publications can be found at the project's Web site: http://www.cebg.fi/.
Objective: Mental fatigue occurring after a stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in difficulties returning to work and pursuing social activities. No effective treatment of this condition is available today. In this study, we have tested a novel pharmacological strategy using the monoaminergic stabiliser (−)-OSU6162.
Methods: (−)-OSU6162 was given orally for 4 weeks in doses increasing from 15 to 45 mg b.i.d. to 12 patients suffering from mental fatigue, following upon stroke (n=6) or TBI (n=6). (−)-OSU6162 was compared with placebo using a double-blind, randomised cross-over design. Patients included were well rehabilitated physically with no gross impairment in cognitive functions other than those related to the mental fatigue.
Results: (−)-OSU6162 caused a remarkable improvement in mental stamina, as evaluated by a self-assessment scale on mental fatigue. Statistical significance was reached on the primary endpoint (Mental Fatigue Scale). There was a trend towards improvement in the secondary endpoints processing speed and attention. Principal component analysis showed an overall positive treatment effect in 7 of 12 patients. Beneficial responses were seen already during the first few days of active drug treatment. Increasing dosage caused no further improvement. Adverse reactions consisted of short-lasting mild nausea and attenuated appetite. These side effects disappeared upon dose reduction.
Conclusion: The monoaminergic stabiliser (−)-OSU6162 offers promise as a candidate for treatment of mental fatigue after a stroke or TBI.
Life is but a continuous process of energy conversion and transformation. The accomplishments of civilization have largely been achieved through the increasingly efficient and extensive harnessing of various forms of energy to extend human capabilities and ingenuity. Energy is similarly indispensable for continued human development and economic growth. Providing adequate, affordable energy is a necessary (even if by itself insufficient) prerequisite for eradicating poverty, improving human welfare, and raising living standards worldwide. Without economic growth, it will also be difficult to address social and environmental challenges, especially those associated with poverty. Without continued institutional, social, and technological innovation, it will be impossible to address planetary challenges such as climate change. Energy extraction, conversion, and use always generate undesirable by-products and emissions – at a minimum in the form of dissipated heat. Energy cannot be created or destroyed – it can only be converted from one form to another, along a one-way street from higher to lower grades (qualities) of energy. Although it is common to discuss energy “consumption,” energy is actually transformed rather than consumed.
This Energy Primer 1 aims at a basic-level introduction to fundamental concepts and data that help to understand energy systems holistically and to provide a common conceptual and terminological framework before examining in greater detail the various aspects of energy systems from challenges and options to integrated solutions, as done in the different chapters of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA).
Dietary patterns capture the overall diet and thereby provide information on how nutrients are consumed in combinations, and have been suggested to be a better method than studying single nutrients. The present study explored the relationship between dietary patterns at baseline and incidence of obesity at 10-year follow-up in women.
A longitudinal study using baseline measurements from 1992–1996, including food intake, medication, heredity, socio-economic status, lifestyle and measured body composition, and follow-up data collected in 2002–2006 including measured body composition.
Data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) in Sweden.
A total of 6545 initially non-obese women aged 30–50 years.
Among women reporting plausible energy intakes, the ‘Fruit and vegetables cluster’ predicted the highest incidence of obesity (OR = 1·76, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·76; P = 0·015) compared with women in the other food pattern groups combined. When adjusting for metabolic factors and BMI at baseline, the risk for obesity in the ‘Fruit and vegetables cluster’ was attenuated to non-significance. In contrast, high intake of fruit per se was associated with a decreased risk of developing obesity (OR = 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·91; P = 0·010).
Dietary pattern groups identified by cluster analysis are likely to reflect characteristics in addition to diet, including lifestyle, previous and current health status and risk factors for future disease, whereas intake of fruit per se was a stable indicator and less affected by baseline characteristics. These results underscore the need for complementary methods in understanding diet–disease relationships.
Ti–Si–C–N thin films were deposited onto WC-Co substrates by industrial scale arc evaporation from Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes in N2 gas. Microstructure and hardness were found to be highly dependent on the wide range of film compositions attained, comprising up to 12 at.% Si and 16 at.% C. Nonreactive deposition yielded films consisting of understoichiometric TiCx, Ti, and silicide phases with high (27 GPa) hardness. At a nitrogen pressure of 0.25–0.5 Pa, below that required for N saturation, superhard, 45–50 GPa, (Ti,Si)(C,N) films with a nanocrystalline feathered structure were formed. Films grown above 2 Pa displayed crystalline phases of more pronounced nitride character, but with C and Si segregated to grain boundaries to form weak grain boundary phases. In abundance of N, the combined presence of Si and C disturbs cubic phase growth severely and compromises the mechanical strength of the films.
To identify the dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic factors associated with the intake of whole grains (WG) in Norway, Sweden and Denmark.
A cross-sectional study.
Subsample of the Scandinavian cohort ‘HELGA’ consisting of three prospective cohorts: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study; The Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study; and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study.
A total of 8702 men and women aged 30–65 years. Dietary data are from one 24 h dietary recall and data on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors including anthropometric values are from the baseline collection of data.
Vegetables, fruits, dairy products, fish and shellfish, coffee, tea and margarine were directly associated with the intake of WG, whereas red meat, white bread, alcohol and cakes and biscuits were inversely associated. Smoking and BMI were consistently inversely associated with the intake of WG. Furthermore, length of education was directly associated with the intake of WG among women.
The intake of WG was found to be directly associated with healthy diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors and inversely associated with less healthy factors, suggesting that these factors are important for consideration as potential confounders when studying WG intake and disease associations.
Experiments on choice blindness support von Hippel & Trivers's (VH&T's) conception of the mind as fundamentally divided, but they also highlight a problem for VH&T's idea of non-conscious self-deception: If I try to trick you into believing that I have a certain preference, and the best way is to also trick myself, I might actually end up having that preference, at all levels of processing.
Scientific studies of challenges of climate change could be improved by including other sources of knowledge, such as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), in this case relating to the Sámi. This study focuses on local variations in snow and ice conditions, effects of the first durable snow, and long term changes in snow and ice conditions as pre-requisites for understanding potential future changes. Firstly, we characterised snow types and profiles based on Sámi categories and measured their density and hardness. Regression analysis showed that density can explain much of the variation in hardness, while snow depth was not significantly correlated with hardness. Secondly, we found that whether it is dry/cold or warm/wet around the fall of the first durable snow is, according to Sámi reindeer herders, crucial information for forecasting winter grazing conditions, but this has had limited focus within science. Thirdly, elderly herders’ observations of changes in snow and ice conditions by ‘reading nature’ can aid reinterpretation of meteorological data by introducing researchers to alternative perspectives. In conclusion we found remarkable agreement between scientific measurements and Sámi terminology. We also learnt that TEK/science cooperation has much potential for climate change studies, though time and resources are needed to bridge the gap between knowledge systems. In particular, TEK attention to shifts in nature can be a useful guide for science.
We used data from two population-based longitudinal studies to estimate time of onset and rate of accelerated decline across cognitive domains before dementia diagnosis. The H70 includes an age-homogeneous sample (127 cases and 255 non-cases) initially assessed at age 70 with 12 follow-ups over 30 years. The Kungsholmen Project (KP) includes an age-heterogeneous sample (279 cases and 562 non-cases), with an average age of 82 years at initial assessment, and 4 follow-ups spanning 13 years. We fit mixed linear models to the data and determined placement of change points by a profile likelihood method. Results demonstrated onset of accelerated decline for fluid (speed, memory) versus crystallized (verbal, clock reading) abilities occurring approximately 10 and 5 years before diagnosis, respectively. Although decline before change points was greater for fluid abilities, acceleration was more pronounced for crystallized abilities after the change points. This suggests that onset and rate of acceleration vary systematically along the fluid-crystallized ability continuum. There is early onset in fluid abilities, but these changes are difficult to detect due to substantial age-related decline. Onset occurred later and acceleration was greater in crystallized abilities, suggesting that those markers may provide more valid identification of cases in later stages of the prodromal phase. (JINS, 2011, 17, 000–000)
A novel cryogenic electrostatic storage device consisting of two ion-beam storage rings with a common straight section for studies of interactions between oppositely charged ions at low and well-defined relative velocities is under construction at Stockholm University. Here we consider the prospect of using this new tool to measure cross-sections and rate coefficients for mutual neutralization reactions of importance in interstellar ion chemistry in general and specifically in cosmic pre-biotic ion chemistry.
Across Europe, lead-tin alloy organ pipes are suffering from atmospheric corrosion. This deterioration can eventually lead to cracks and holes, preventing the pipes from producing sound. Organ pipes are found in compositions ranging from >99% Pb to >99% Sn. For very lead-rich (>99% Pb) pipes, organic acids emitted from the wood of organ cases have previously been identified as significant corrosive agents. In order to study the role of alloy composition in the susceptibility of pipes to organic acid attack, lead-tin alloys containing 1.2-15 at.% Sn were exposed to acetic acid vapors in laboratory exposure studies. Corrosion rates were monitored gravimetrically, and corrosion product phases were identified using grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction. In a new method, focused-ion beam (FIB) cross-sections were cut through corrosion sites, and SEM and WDX were used to obtain detailed information about the morphology and chemical composition of the corrosion layers. The combination of FIB and SEM has made it possible to obtain depth information about these micron-scale layers, providing insight into the influence of acetic acid on alloys in the 1.2-15 at.% Sn range.
The Swedish Twin Registry was first established in the late 1950s. Today it includes more than 170,000 twins — in principle all twins born in Sweden since 1886. In this article we describe some ongoing and recently completed projects based on the registry. In particular, we describe recent efforts to screen all twins born between 1959 and 1985, and young twin pairs when they turn 9 and 12 years of age. For these studies, we present initial frequencies of common conditions and exposures.
We found that in regions of high mass star formation the CS emission correlates well with the dust continuum emission and is therefore a good tracer of the total mass while the N$_2$H$^+$ distribution is frequently very different. This is opposite to their typical behavior in low-mass cores. The behavior of other high density tracers varies from source to source but most of them are closer to CS. Radial density profiles in massive cores are fitted by power laws with indices about −1.6, as derived from the dust continuum emission. The radial temperature dependence on intermediate scales is close to the theoretically expected one for a centrally heated optically thin cloud. The velocity dispersion either remains constant or decreases from the core center to the edge. Several cores including those without known embedded IR sources show signs of infall motions. They can represent the earliest phases of massive protostars. There are implicit arguments in favor of small-scale clumpiness in the cores.
The validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated by 14 d weighed records, a twenty-seven-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 180-item FFQ was investigated using serum carotenoids as the validity criterion. In addition, the method of triads was used to assess the validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated from the FFQ and serum carotenoids. One hundred Norwegian men completed 14 d weighed records and the 180-item FFQ. Eighty-six of them also completed the twenty-seven item FFQ. The partial correlation coefficients between serum carotenoids and fruit and vegetable intake were slightly higher for the 14 d weighed records than for the two FFQ, but no difference was observed between the 180- and the twenty-seven item FFQ. The strongest correlations were observed between vegetable intake and serum α-carotene. The highest validity coefficients (VC) were observed for vegetable intake estimated from weighed records, the 180-item FFQ, the twenty-seven item FFQ and by the biomarker serum α-carotene, with VC of 0·77, 0·58, 0·51 and 0·67, respectively. In conclusion, the short FFQ gave as valid estimates for fruit and vegetable intake as the long FFQ. Both the estimated partial correlation coefficients and VC suggest that serum α-carotene is the best biomarker for intake of vegetable alone and total intake of fruit and vegetables in this population of Norwegian men, but the biomarkers did not perform any better than the FFQ.