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In adults with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), higher stool concentrations of toxins A and B are associated with severe baseline disease, CDI-attributable severe outcomes, and recurrence. We evaluated whether toxin concentration predicts these presentations in children with CDI.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients aged 2–17 years with CDI who received treatment. Patients were followed for 40 days after diagnosis for severe outcomes (intensive care unit admission, colectomy, or death, categorized as CDI primarily attributable, CDI contributed, or CDI not contributing) and recurrence. Baseline stool toxin A and B concentrations were measured using ultrasensitive single-molecule array assay, and 12 plasma cytokines were measured when blood was available.
We enrolled 187 pediatric patients (median age, 9.6 years). Patients with severe baseline disease by IDSA-SHEA criteria (n = 34) had nonsignificantly higher median stool toxin A+B concentration than those without severe disease (n = 122; 3,217.2 vs 473.3 pg/mL; P = .08). Median toxin A+B concentration was nonsignificantly higher in children with a primarily attributed severe outcome (n = 4) versus no severe outcome (n = 148; 19,472.6 vs 429.1 pg/mL; P = .301). Recurrence occurred in 17 (9.4%) of 180 patients. Baseline toxin A+B concentration was significantly higher in patients with versus without recurrence: 4,398.8 versus 280.8 pg/mL (P = .024). Plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor concentration was significantly higher in CDI patients versus non-CDI diarrhea controls: 165.5 versus 28.5 pg/mL (P < .001).
Higher baseline stool toxin concentrations are present in children with CDI recurrence. Toxin quantification should be included in CDI treatment trials to evaluate its use in severity assessment and outcome prediction.
To identify the impact of universal masking on COVID-19 incidence and putative SARS-CoV-2 transmissions events among children’s hospital healthcare workers (HCWs).
Single academic free-standing children’s hospital.
We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2- PCR-positive samples collected from HCWs 3 weeks before and 6 weeks after implementing a universal masking policy. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify clusters of clonally related SARS-CoV-2 indicative of putative transmission events. We measured COVID-19 incidence, SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rates, and frequency of putative transmission events before and after the masking policy was implemented.
HCW COVID-19 incidence and test positivity declined from 14.3 to 4.3 cases per week, and from 18.4% to 9.0%, respectively. Putative transmission events were only identified prior to universal masking.
A universal masking policy was associated with reductions in HCW COVID-19 infections and occupational acquisition of SARS-CoV-2.
To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.
The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).
Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.
A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level “harm index” for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.
We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.
To characterize healthcare provider diagnostic testing practices for identifying Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage in children.
An 11-question survey was sent by e-mail or facsimile to all pediatric infectious diseases (PID) members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Emerging Infections Network (EIN).
Among 345 eligible respondents who had ever responded to an EIN survey, 196 (57%) responded; 162 of these (83%) were aware of their institutional policies for CDI testing and management. Also, 159 (98%) respondents knew their institution’s C. difficile testing method: 99 (62%) utilize NAAT without toxin testing and 60 (38%) utilize toxin testing, either as a single test or a multistep algorithm. Of 153 respondents, 10 (7%) reported that formed stools were tested for C. difficile at their institution, and 76 of 151 (50%) reported that their institution does not restrict C. difficile testing in infants and young children. The frequency of symptom- and age-based testing restrictions did not vary between institutions utilizing NAAT alone compared to those utilizing toxin testing for C. difficile diagnosis. Of 143 respondents, 26 (16%) permit testing of neonatal intensive care unit patients and 12 of 26 (46%) treat CDI with antibiotics in this patient population.
These data suggest that there are opportunities to improve CDI diagnostic stewardship practices in children, including among hospitals using NAATs alone for CDI diagnosis in children.
Traditional antibiograms can guide empiric antibiotic therapy, but they may miss differences in resistance across patient subpopulations. In this retrospective descriptive study, we constructed and validated antibiograms using International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes and other discrete data elements to define a cohort of previously healthy children with urinary tract infections. Our results demonstrate increased antibiotic susceptibility. This methodology may be modified to create other syndrome-specific antibiograms.
Transitioning from administration of monthly palivizumab to a single dose at discharge was associated with substantial pharmacy cost savings. With the concurrent adoption of private hospital rooms and visitor restriction policies, hospital-wide and neonatal intensive care unit healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus infections decreased following these changes.
The molecular epidemiology of pediatric Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups causing CDI and to determine risk factors and outcomes associated with CDI caused by epidemic strains in children.
Retrospective cohort study
Inpatients and outpatients >1 year old receiving care between December 2012 and December 2013
An academic children’s hospital in Chicago, Illinois
C. difficile PCR-positive stools were cultured, and C. difficile isolates were typed by REA. REA of isolates from patients with multiple CDIs was performed to differentiate relapse (infection with same strain) from reinfection (different strains) irrespective of time between CDIs.
A total of 189 CDIs occurred among 145 patients. REA groups were widely distributed. The BI/NAP1/027 strain caused CDI in only 1 patient. DH/NAP11/106, the predominant epidemic strain identified, was associated with the use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins (risk ratio [RR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–9.9; P=.04). CDI relapse commonly occurred up to 20 weeks later. Compared with CDI caused by non-DH/NAP11/106 strains, CDI caused by DH/NAP11/106 was more likely to result in multiple CDI relapses (40% vs 8%; P=.05) among children with multiple CDIs.
REA identified the exceedingly low prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 and the high prevalence of DH/NAP11/106, a common epidemic strain in the United Kingdom that is less often reported in the United States. CDI relapse commonly occurred up to 20 weeks from the previous CDI. Defining recurrent CDI as that occurring only within 8 weeks of the original infection may lead to misclassification of some recurrent CDIs as new CDIs in children.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1–7
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