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Emergency physicians, in all practice settings, care for patients with both undifferentiated psycho-behavioral presentations and established psychiatric illness. This reference-based text goes beyond diagnostics, providing practical input from physicians experienced with adult emergency psychiatric patients. Physicians will increase their understanding and gain confidence working with these patients, even when specialized psychiatric back-up is lacking. Behavioral Emergencies for the Emergency Physician is comprehensive, covering the pre-hospital setting and advising on evidence-based practice; from collaborating with psychiatric colleagues to establishing a psychiatric service in your ED. Sedation, restraint and seclusion are outlined. Potential dilemmas when treating pregnant, geriatric or homeless patients with mental illness are discussed in detail, along with the more challenging behavioral diagnoses such as malingering, factitious and personality disorders. This go-to, comprehensive volume is invaluable for trainee and experienced emergency physicians, as well as psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric and emergency department nurses and other mental health workers.
The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) was enacted in 1986 as a component of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985. The emergency physician must ensure that a psychiatric presentation is not masking or coinciding with another illness, such as an occult head injury, metabolic disturbance, or toxic ingestion. It is commonplace for mental health screeners from the community to participate in the evaluation of patients with psychiatric emergencies and assist in locating inpatient availability when the emergency medical condition (EMC) is not stabilized and inpatient care is required. Failure to comply with EMTALA can lead to substantial consequences for hospitals and physicians. Emergency psychiatry involves a broad healthcare team and members vary in their level of responsibility and education. Understanding the requirements imposed by EMTALA is an essential compliance topic for each team member.
Convergent evidence implicates white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. The cingulum is an important candidate structure for study in bipolar disorder as it provides substantial white matter connections within the corticolimbic neural system that subserves emotional regulation involved in the disorder.
To test the hypothesis that bipolar disorder is associated with abnormal white matter integrity in the cingulum.
Fractional anisotropy in the anterior and posterior cingulum was compared between 42 participants with bipolar disorder and 42 healthy participants using diffusion tensor imaging.
Fractional anisotropy was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulum in the bipolar disorder group compared with the healthy group (P=0.003); however, fractional anisotropy in the posterior cingulum did not differ significantly between groups.
Our findings demonstrate abnormalities in the structural integrity of the anterior cingulum in bipolar disorder. They extend evidence that supports involvement of the neural system comprising the anterior cingulate cortex and its corticolimbic gray matter connection sites in bipolar disorder to implicate abnormalities in the white matter connections within the system provided by the cingulum.
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