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Structure and optical properties have been successfully determined for a series of niobium- and tantalum-containing layered alkaline-earth silicate compounds, Ba3(Nb6−xTax)Si4O26 (x = 0.6, 1.8, 3.0, 4.2, 5.4). The structure of this solid solution was found to be hexagonal P-62m (No. 189), with Z = 1. With x increases from 0.6 to 5.4, the lattice parameter a increases from 8.98804(8) to 9.00565(9) Å and c decreases from 7.83721(10) to 7.75212(12) Å. As a result, the volume decreases from 548.304(11) to 544.479(14) Å3. The (Nb/Ta)O6 distorted octahedra form continuous chains along the c-axis. These (Nb/Ta)O6 chains are in turn linked with the Si2O7 groups to form distorted pentagonal channels in which Ba ions were found. These Ba2+ ions have full occupancy and a 13-fold coordination environment with neighboring oxygen sites. Another salient feature of the structure is the linear Si–O–Si chains. When x in Ba3(Nb6−xTax)Si4O26 increases, the bond valence sum (BVS) values of the Ba sites increase slightly (2.09–2.20), indicating the size of the cage becoming progressively smaller (over-bonding). While SiO cages are also slightly smaller than ideal (BVS range from 4.16 to 4.19), the (Nb/Ta)O6 octahedral cages are slightly larger than ideal (BVS range from 4.87 to 4.90), giving rise to an under-bonding situation. The bandgaps of the solid solution members were measured between 3.39 and 3.59 eV, and the x = 3.0 member was modeled by density functional theory techniques to be 3.07 eV. The bandgaps of these materials indicate that they are potential candidates for ultraviolet photocatalyst.
In the present work, the ankle rehabilitation robot (ARR) dynamic model that implements a new series of connection control strategies is introduced. The dynamic models are presented in this regard. This model analyzes the robot LuGre friction model and the nonlinear disturbance model. To improve the ARR system’s rapidity and robustness, a composite 2-degree of freedom (2-DOF) internal model control (IMC) controller is presented. The control performance of the compound 2-DOF IMC controller is simulated and analyzed in the present work. The simulation shows that the composite 2-DOF IMC controller has high following performance. For practical testing purposes, 1-DOF passive training and predetermined trajectory following have been completed for different swing amplitudes and frequencies. Moreover, the thrust and tension torque of the robotic dynamic and static loading characteristics are studied in active control mode. The experimental results show the effectiveness of passive training of the given trajectory and impedance training active control strategy. This paper gives the specific functions of ARR.
This study aimed to identify the important capacities that were most urgently needed during emergency response and factors associated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) professionals’ field coping-capacity for public health emergency.
Professional workers (N = 1854) from 40 CDC institutions were chosen using the stratified cluster random sampling method in all 13 municipalities of Heilongjiang Province, China. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used.
Of 10 key capacities, the 3 that were most urgently needed during emergency response fieldwork as identified by respondents were crisis communication capacity, personal protection capacity, and laboratory detection capacity. Overall, 38.1% of respondents self-rated as “poor” on their coping-capacity. The logistic regression found that proficiency in emergency preparedness planning, more practical experiences in emergency response, effectiveness in training and drills, a higher education level, and a higher professional position were significantly associated with the individual’s field coping-capacity.
This study identified CDC professionals’ most urgent capacity need and the obstructive factors and highlighted the importance of enhancing the capacity in crisis communication, personal protection, and laboratory detection. Intervention should be targeted at sufficient fund, formalized, and effective emergency training and drills, more operational technical guidance, and all-around supervision and evaluation.
Structural characterization and X-ray reference powder pattern determination have been conducted for the Co- and Zn-containing tridymite derivatives Ba(Co1−xZnx)SiO4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8). The bright blue series of Ba(Co1−xZnx)SiO4 crystallized in the hexagonal P63 space group (No. 173), with Z = 6. While the lattice parameter “a” decreases from 9.126 (2) Å to 9.10374(6) Å from x = 0.2 to 0.8, the lattice parameter “c” increases from 8.69477(12) Å to 8.72200(10) Å, respectively. Apparently, despite the similarity of ionic sizes of Zn2+ and Co2+, these opposing trends are due to the framework tetrahedral tilting of (ZnCo)O4. The lattice volume, V, remains comparable between 626.27 Å3 and 626.017 (7) Å3 from x = 0 to x = 0.8. UV-visible absorption spectrum measurements indicate the band gap of these two materials to be ≈3.3 and ≈3.5 eV, respectively, therefore potential UV photocatalytic materials. Reference powder X-ray diffraction patterns of these compounds have been submitted to be included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF).
The Lung Cam expanded stratigraphic succession in Vietnam is correlated herein to the Meishan D section in China, the GSSP for the Permian–Triassic boundary. The first appearance datum of the conodont Hindeodus parvus at Meishan defines the Permian–Triassic boundary, and using published graphic correlation, the Permian–Triassic boundary level has been projected into the Lung Cam section. Using time-series analysis of magnetic susceptibility (χ) data, it is determined that H. parvus arrived at Lung Cam ∼18 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. Data indicate that the Lung Cam section is expanded by ∼90 % relative to the GSSP section at Meishan. Given the expanded Lung Cam section, it is possible to resolve the timing of significant events during the Permian–Triassic transition with high precision. These events include major stepped extinctions, beginning at ∼135 kyr and ending at ∼110 kyr below the Permian–Triassic boundary, with a duration of ∼25 kyr, followed by deposition of Lung Cam ash Bed + 13, which is equivalent to Siberian Traps volcanism is graphically correlated to a precession Time-series model, placing onset of this major volcanic event at ~242 kyr before the PTB. The Meishan Beds 25 and 26, at ∼100 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. In addition, the elemental geochemical, carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy susceptibility datasets from Lung Cam allow good correlation to other Permian–Triassic boundary succession. These datasets are helpful when the conodont biostratigraphy is poorly known in sections with problems such as lithofacies variability, or is undefined, owing possibly to lithofacies exclusions, anoxia or for other reasons. The Lung Pu Permian–Triassic boundary section, ∼45 km from Lung Cam, is used to test these problems.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Surface morphology modification by low-energy ion bombardment is widely used in many thin film techniques such as sputter deposition, ion-beam-assisted growth and ion polishing, in order to obtain smooth surfaces desirable for device applications. Under certain circumstances, ion bombardment on surfaces is also known to produce 2-D (ripples or wires) and 1-D (dot) structures by a self-organization process that arises from a competition of a roughing instability mechanism and surface relaxation. Knowledge of the mechanisms which govern those surface processes is very crucial to engineer technologically significant surface morphologies at the submicron or nano-scale in a more controlled way. Recently, the fast-growing advances in synchrotron x-ray scattering and detector techniques have enabled detailed investigations into the surface kinetics during ion bombardment. In this work, a study of surface smoothing on nanocorrugated sapphire surfaces by low-energy ion bombardment at normal incidence will be presented. Real time characterization by synchrotron grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering for the dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength of sapphire ripples is performed. A ripple amplitude displays a classic behavior of profile-preserving exponential decay with time upon ion irradiation. The dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength is discussed with existing surface smoothing mechanisms. The wavelength dependence exhibits a power law behavior with exponential close to 2 instead of 4, which suggests a dominant smoothing mechanism related to ion impact induced lateral mass redistribution for near normal incidence condition. The appearance of multiple smoothing rate constants at high temperature is thought to be relative with emerging atomic steps after surface recrystallization.
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of learning engagement on the relationship between social networking site (SNS) addiction and academic achievement among 406 university students. The Social Networking Site Addiction Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, and Chinese Students Academic Achievement Scale were used to evaluate students’ SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement. Correlation analysis indicated that SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement were significantly correlated with each other. The causal steps regression and bootstrap analysis show that learning engagement mediated the relationship between SNS addiction and academic achievement. Implications for research and instructions for how to improve university students’ academic achievement are discussed.
Connected-Element Interferometry (CEI) is a technique for measuring the phase delay of difference of Time Of Arrival (TOA) of a downlink radio signal to two antennae on a short baseline. This technique can use an atomic clock for time-frequency transmission and achieve intermediate accuracy angular tracking. Owing to the relatively short length of the baseline, the passive reception mode, and near real-time operation, CEI can be used to continuously monitor the orbit variations of both cooperative and non-cooperative satellites. In this paper, a small-scale CEI system of two orthogonal baselines (75 m × 35 m) is investigated to track a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) Television (TV) satellite at 110·5°E. The phases are extracted from correlation results. The results show that the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the phase fitting residuals, if not calibrated, is within 2° at night and up to 10° in the daytime. After applying the calibration signal, the RMS of the phase fitting residuals in the daytime decreases to the same level at night. Comparing the phase delay with the a priori phase delay using Two-Line-Element (TLE) data, the integer ambiguity is successfully resolved. Finally, a batch algorithm is used to estimate the orbit of the GEO satellite, and the orbit determination accuracy is evaluated using the precise orbits provided by the China National Time Service Centre (NTSC). The results show that the accuracies in the radial direction and the cross-track direction are less than 1 km, and the Three-Dimensional (3D) position accuracy reaches the 2 km order of magnitude.
We present a parameter estimate for continua, and He-like triplets of the high resolution X-ray spectra with a Bayesian inference and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) tool. The method is applied for Vela X-1 with three different orbital phases (
, which are adopted from the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). A parameterized two-component power-law model [Sako et al., Astrophys. J. 525, 921 (1999)] and a multi-Gaussian model are applied to model these continua and He-like triplets, respectively. A uniform distribution over each parameter is used as the prior belief. Posterior probability distribution functions of parameters and the covariances among them are explored by using the MCMC method. The main advantages are (i) all model-based parameters are set to be free instead of artificially fixing some of the parameters during the data-model fitting; (ii) the contributions from satellite lines are considered; (iii) backgrounds are treated as a correction to the observation errors; and (iv) the confidence interval of each parameter is given. The fitted results show that the column density of scatter component (
) varies from phase to phase, which imply a non-spherical structure of the stellar wind in Vela X-1. Moreover, the wind velocities derived from main lines of each set of He-like triplets show better self-consistency than those in previous publications, which could provide a reliable approach for the diagnostics of photoionized plasma in astrophysical objects and the laboratory.
Pilophyllia Ge and Yu, 1974 represents a major group of distinctive amplexoid corals in the Silurian, whose taxonomic relationships, species composition, and evolutionary trends remain contentious. A critical revision of type material and new specimens of several species (and subspecies) assigned to Pilophyllia, including the type species P. involuta Ge and Yu, 1974, provides solutions to some of these problems. Pilophyllia is revised to include only those forms characterized by a distinct peripheral stereozone and amplexoid major septa with club-shaped rhabdacanths set in thick lamellar stereomes. Other species, previously referred to Pilophyllia but having generally short septa with wedge-shaped rhabdacanths, are transferred herein to the new genus Neopilophyllia Wang. Both genera, together with other Silurian amplexoid rugosan genera such as Amplexoides, are referred to the new family Amplexoididae Wang, which is thought to be evolutionarily unrelated to the much younger (Devonian to early Carboniferous) amplexoid rugosan family Amplexidae Chapman, 1893. The first appearance of Neopilophyllia n. gen. in the middle Telychian, much later than that of Pilophyllia in the late Rhuddanian, probably marks a significant stage during the evolution of Silurian amplexoid corals.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
This telescope was designed for determining the trigonometric parallaxes of faint stars. The otpical configuration is a Ritchey-Chrétien system and has only a f/10 Cassegrain focus for photographic work.
The mounting is a combination of fork and yoke frame which can reduce the flexure due to gravity. A high speed digital servo-system was adopted for controlling and driving the telescope. At present some photographs of Comet Halley have been obtained.
The 1.56m astrometric telescope (Fig. 1) is designed mainly for determining trigonometric parallaxes of faint stars.
In order to keep the design as simple as possible, the telescope has only a Ritchey-Chretien focus and will accomodate plates 200 × 200 mm. We also plan to design several pieces of auxiliary equipment such as a medium dispersion grating spectrograph, a photometer, a reducing camera, and an electrographic camera, all of which are in the second stage of engineering. The whole project consists of four parts.
G-Network queueing network models, and in particular the random neural network (RNN), are useful tools for decision making in complex systems, due to their ability to learn from measurements in real time, and in turn provide real-time decisions regarding resource and task allocation. In particular, the RNN has led to the design of the cognitive packet network (CPN) decision tool for the routing of packets in the Internet, and for task allocation in the Cloud. Thus in this paper, we present recent research on how to dynamically create the means for quality of service (QoS) to end users of the Internet and in the Cloud. The approach is based on adapting the decisions so as to benefit users as the conditions in the Internet and in Cloud servers vary due to changing traffic and workload. We present an overview of the algorithms that were designed based on the RNN, and also detail the experimental results that were obtained in three areas: (i) traffic routing for real-time applications, which have strict QoS constraints; (ii) routing approaches, which operate at the overlay level without affecting the Internet infrastructure; and (iii) the routing of tasks across servers in the Cloud through the Internet.
A need exists for public health strategies regarding extreme weather disasters, which in recent years have become more frequent. This study aimed to understand the public’s perception of extreme cold and its related health risks, which may provide detailed information for public health preparedness during an extreme cold weather event.
To evaluate public perceptions of cold-related health risk and to identify vulnerable groups, we collected responses from 891 participants in a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Public perception was measured by calculating the score for each perception question.
Locals perceived that extreme cold weather and related health risks were serious, but thought they could not avoid these risks. The significant difference in perceived acceptance level between age groups suggested that the elderly are a “high health risk, low risk perception” group, meaning that they are relatively more vulnerable owing to their high susceptibility and low awareness of the health risks associated with extreme cold weather.
The elderly should be a priority in risk communication and health protective interventions. This study demonstrated that introducing risk perception into the public health field can identify vulnerable groups with greater needs, which may improve the decision-making of public health intervention strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:417–421)
Spatial-temporal variations in the extent of the seasonal snow cover of the upper reaches of the Yellow River were studied sytematically, using NOAA, Landsat, MSS and TM images, supported by ground-truth data. Effects of changing areal extent of snow cover on river flow were also examined. Spring-runoff forecasting models were developed, based on ridge regression methods and Grey theory, employing satellite snow-cover and actual hydrometeorological data to forecast inflow to the Longyang Gorge reservoir for ten-day periods between April and early June. Forecast precision is within ±15% of the actual observation. Separating snow-cover data by elevation zone improves the accuracy of forecast over lumping snow cover over the entire basin.
To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.
Changes in soil chemistry in response to varying climatic regimes can alter the equilibria of soil systems and result in different clay minerals. Variations in phyllosilicate clay composition can reflect temporal and spatial climatic changes, such as summer/winter monsoon cycles. The objective of this research was to investigate the mineralogy of the clay fractions as a proxy for determining variations in the East Asian monsoon climate, based on a section at Chaoyang in China spanning the last 0.423 Ma BP. The clay mineralogy record in the Chaoyang section was compared with other proxies as recorded in this section and with other palaeoclimatic indicators, including oxygen isotopes from oceanic sediments and loess–palaeosol sections on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). The results from clay mineralogy and related climatic studies show that the summer monsoon has a trend of four increased stages and four decreased stages; whereas the winter monsoon displays the opposite trend. During the last 0.423 Ma BP, the strongest winter monsoon occurred around 0.243–0.311 Ma BP. During this period, which included an intense winter monsoon, the soil in the section had the least illite, one of the smallest kaolinite and illite/Chlorite (I/C) indices and an overall decreasing clay content. The period 0.225–0.243 Ma BP had the strongest summer monsoon over the last 0.423 Ma BP. This period had the greatest amount of illite, the highest I/C index, greater overall clay content and the strongest magnetic susceptibility signal. Additionally, this section contained the smallest mean grain size. The multi-monsoon climate cycles of alternating cold-dry and warm-moist conditions as recorded in the Chaoyang section corresponded well with multiple glaciation cycles based on deep sea sediments. This indicates that the Chaoyang section provides a record of palaeoclimate changes in northeast China that can be linked to mineralogical suites to assist in reconstructing the palaeoclimate over the Late Middle Pleistocene, and complements the global palaeoclimate records in the CLP.
Gamma prime (γ′) stability and its influence on tensile behavior of a newly developed wrought superalloy with various Fe contents was studied both experimentally and thermodynamically. The results show that the γ′-solvus temperature is higher and γ–γ′ lattice mismatch is bigger in the alloy with the lower Fe content. During long-term thermal exposure at 650–750 °C, the coarsening behavior of γ′ precipitates follows Ostwald ripening kinetics and the lower Fe content can decrease the coarsening rate of γ′ precipitates due to the increase of the activation energy for γ′ coarsening. Moreover, the lower Fe content can retard the transformation from γ′ to η phase. The tensile properties of the alloys with different Fe contents are almost same after standard heat treatment. However, after thermal exposure, the decrease of tensile strength in the alloy with lower Fe content is less than that of the alloys with higher Fe content due to the improvement of γ′ stability.
This paper presents a novel forecasting kinematic algorithm for autonomously navigating the 3D visual window of laparoscopic minimally invasive surgical robotic system (LMISRS). By the application of the proposed technique, a constant distribution area ratio of the micro devices can be guaranteed in the visual window; real-time concurrency motion of the visual window of the laparoscope and the mark points of the instruments is realized, i.e. the visual window can keep tracking the movement of the marks automatically, so that the user does not have to switch between the master-slave controlling targets. The implementation of the new technique is summarized as follows: the robotic kinematics and space analytic geometry are thoroughly analyzed and modeled, and a “following kinematic algorithm” is proposed for the visual window of the laparoscope, which tracks the mark points of the instrument arms; a “forecasting kinematic algorithm” is established by using a combination of the “following kinematic algorithm”, the basic visual parameters of 3D visual field, the Verhulst Grey Model and the filtered amendment method. The proposed technique is verified by a series of simulations by using two groups of marks' motion trails with different sampling times, indicating that the technique is accurate, feasible and robust.