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Pilophyllia Ge and Yu, 1974 represents a major group of distinctive amplexoid corals in the Silurian, whose taxonomic relationships, species composition, and evolutionary trends remain contentious. A critical revision of type material and new specimens of several species (and subspecies) assigned to Pilophyllia, including the type species P. involuta Ge and Yu, 1974, provides solutions to some of these problems. Pilophyllia is revised to include only those forms characterized by a distinct peripheral stereozone and amplexoid major septa with club-shaped rhabdacanths set in thick lamellar stereomes. Other species, previously referred to Pilophyllia but having generally short septa with wedge-shaped rhabdacanths, are transferred herein to the new genus Neopilophyllia Wang. Both genera, together with other Silurian amplexoid rugosan genera such as Amplexoides, are referred to the new family Amplexoididae Wang, which is thought to be evolutionarily unrelated to the much younger (Devonian to early Carboniferous) amplexoid rugosan family Amplexidae Chapman, 1893. The first appearance of Neopilophyllia n. gen. in the middle Telychian, much later than that of Pilophyllia in the late Rhuddanian, probably marks a significant stage during the evolution of Silurian amplexoid corals.
In this paper, the hole carrier mobility of organic semiconductor N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′bis(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPD) was researched by negative differential susceptance spectra (−ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f). Under the condition of space charge limited current (SCLC), through solving the drift current equation and Poisson equation and simulating the spectra −ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f, the relationship between the peak of −ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f spectra (1/ƒp = τp) and the transfer time of carrier (τdc) could be achieved to be τdc = k × τp. So the hole-only device of ITO/NPD/Ag was fabricated to determine the capacitance spectra, and through which its −ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f could be plotted. According to the relationship of τdc = k × τp, where k was determined to be 0.56, the transfer time and further the carrier mobility could be obtained. The carrier mobility depended on the electric field according to Poole-Frenkel model was further investigated in this report.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
In this paper, we consider the semilinear elliptic equation −Δu = λf(x,u) with the Dirichlet boundary value, and under suitable assumptions on the nonlinear term f with a more general growth condition. Some existence results of solutions are given for all λ > 0 via the variational method and some analysis techniques.
In this paper, carrier dynamics in N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′bis(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) was studied using impedance spectroscopy (IS) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). We applied PSO to fit the frequency dependence of impedance spectroscopy of NPB, and achieved the charge-carrier transit time and the dispersive parameters of NPB, and then obtained carrier mobility. The impacts of the dispersive degree on the impedance had been analyzed. Though PSO, the three unknown parameters, charge-carrier transit time τdc and dispersive degree M, α in the admittance model were achieved simultaneously. The results verified the reliability of this method. Furthermore, we have presented the advantages of PSO compared with the traditional nonlinear least squares algorithm. In our limited knowledge, this paper begins the work to study materials in the deep level of algorithm
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonosis that threatens global public health. In this study, a total of 95 bird serum samples from 14 species and 341 horse serum samples were collected from 2008 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. All serum samples were screened initially for WNV-reactive antibodies using a competitive ELISA. The positive samples detected by ELISA were further confirmed using a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for WNV and its most closely related flaviviruses in the area to avoid false positives due to cross-reactivity. Five (5·3%) of the bird serum samples and none (0·0%) of the horse serum samples tested positive for WNV antibodies. The findings strongly suggest that some of the birds, specifically the resident birds in China, had been exposed to WNV.
This paper shows the contribution of slow-wave coplanar waveguides on the performance of power amplifiers operating at millimeter-wave frequencies in CMOS-integrated technologies. These transmission lines present a quality factor Q two to three times higher than that of the conventional microstrip lines at the same characteristic impedance. To demonstrate the contribution of the slow-wave transmission lines on integrated millimeter-wave amplifiers performance, two Class-A single-stage power amplifiers (PA) operating at 60 GHz were designed in standard 40 nm CMOS technology. One of the power amplifiers incorporates only the microstrip lines, whereas slow-wave coplanar transmission lines are considered in the other one. Both amplifiers are biased in Class-A operation, drawing, respectively, 22 and 23 mA from 1.2 V supply. Compared to the power amplifier using conventional microstrip transmission lines, the one implemented with slow-wave transmission lines shows improved performances in terms of gain (5.6 dB against 3.3 dB), 1 dB output compression point (OCP1dB: 7 dBm against 5 dBm), saturated output power (Psat: >10 and 8 dBm, respectively), power-added efficiency (PAE: 16% instead of 6%), and die area without pads (Sdie: 0.059 mm2 against 0.069 mm2).
To investigate a nosocomial outbreak of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care units at China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan.
Prospective outbreak investigation.
Three intensive care units in a 2,000-bed university hospital in Taichung, Taiwan.
Thirty-eight stable patients in 3 intensive care units, all of whom had undergone an invasive procedure, were enrolled in our study. Ninety-four A. baumannii strains were isolated from the patients or the environment in the 3 intensive care units, during the period from January 1 through December 31, 2006. We characterized A. baumannii isolates by use of repetitive extragenic palindromic–polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. The clinical characteristics of the source patients and the environment were noted.
All of the clinical isolates were determined to belong to the same epidemic strain of MDR A. baumannii by the use of antimicrobial susceptibility tests, REP-PCR, and RAPD fingerprinting. All patients involved in the infection outbreak had undergone an invasive procedure. The outbreak strain was also isolated from the environment and the equipment in the intensive care units. Moreover, an environmental survey of one of the intensive care units found that both the patients and the environment harbored the same outbreak strain.
The outbreak strain of A. baumannii might have been transmitted among medical staff and administration equipment. Routine and aggressive environmental and equipment disinfection is essential for preventing recurrent outbreaks of nosocomial infection with MDR A. baumannii.
A time-dependent solution for neutral-plasma isothermal expansions into a vacuum in a special-transformation coordinate system is obtained. In this new coordinate system, the special self-similar solutions of it were given by Huang and co-workers (Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031501). Combining the time-dependent solution and the quasi-linear increase of the electron density due to the hot-electron recirculation, an analytic model is proposed to reveal the influence of the hot-electron recirculation on the increase of electric field and on the acceleration of ions of different masses and charges.
Dy3+-doped GeSe2–Ga2Se3–CsI chalcohalide glasses were prepared. The thermal stabilities, optical properties, emission properties, and structure of the glasses were investigated. Upon excitation with a 808-nm diode laser, 1.32-μm near-infrared fluorescence was observed with a broad full width at half-maximum of about 90 nm. It was found the 1.32-μm fluorescence lifetime of the Dy3+-doped GeSe2–Ga2Se3–CsI glass depends on the I/Ga molar ratio and the amount of Ga2Se3 and CsI. The longest lifetime is >2.5 ms. It is noted that the value is significantly higher than those in other Dy3+-doped glasses. The enhancement of lifetime can be attributed to a decreased local phonon mode, which dominates the multiphonon relaxation. Meanwhile, it is interesting to note that the GeSe2–Ga2Se3–CsI glasses have shown good infrared transmittance. As a result, Dy3+-doped GeSe2–Ga2Se3–CsI glasses have been considered to be an attractive host for a 1.3-μm optical fiber amplifier.
Few psychosocial interventions have been developed in China that are
suitable for use in the community.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese version of the Community
Re-Entry Module (CRM; a module of a standardised, structured social
skills training programme devised at the University of California, Los
Angeles) for patients with schizophrenia compared with standard group
Patients with schizophrenia (n=103) were randomly
allocated to CRM or psychoeducation groups and followed up for 24 months.
Outcome measures included social functioning, psychiatric symptoms,
insight, re-employment, relapse and re-hospitalisation rates.
The CRM group significantly improved in terms of social functioning,
insight and psychiatric symptoms compared with the psychoeducation group;
the re-employment rate was significantly higher and relapse and
rehospitalisation rates were significantly lower in the CRM group.
The findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of CRM as a
psychosocial intervention for Chinese patients with schizophrenia in the
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