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Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease and currently poses the greatest arboviral threat to human health. In recent decades, there has been a substantial increase in dengue outbreaks in many parts of the world including India. We performed an in-depth investigation of a major dengue outbreak in Andhra Pradesh, southern India in 2007 by serology, virus isolation, RT–PCR and genotyping. The results revealed an unusual emergence of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) along with the prevailing DENV-3. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene of 182 globally diverse DENV-4 isolates demonstrated the involvement of a unique clade of genotype I of DENV-4 in the outbreak. This study also demonstrated a clear shift in the dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-4 in India. This is the first report regarding the molecular characterization of Indian isolates of DENV-4, which has the potential to be involved in future outbreaks.
The relationship between chromosome pairing and chromosome fragmentation has been studied in a gene controlled mutant of pearl millet (2n = 14). Premeiotic mitosis, premeiotic cell development and early prophase I are normal without any fragments, which first appear at pachytene. The extent of fragmentation varies from zero to very extreme with two discrete classes of plants, namely those with partial fragmentation and those with multiple fragmentation. A quantitative analysis of bivalent distribution and the distribution of AI bridges in desynaptic and fragmented cells show all of them to be nonrandom events. We suggest that in cells showing partial fragmentation the bridges and fragments result from U-type exchanges at pachytene. The reduced frequency of AII bridges indicates relatively low sister chromatid reunion at pachytene. In multiple fragmented plants numerous minute fragments were seen from pachytene. Despite these anomalies most PMCs complete meiosis but subsequently abort at the pollen grain stage. The mutant gene also causes disturbances in the sequence of meiotic development in the ear and in the synchronous development of PMCs within an anther. It has no effect on the tapetum or on the physiological development of the anther.
The spotted pod borer Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is known for its economic importance throughout its geographical distribution because of its destructive nature to reproductive parts of several grain legume crops including pigeonpea. In view of the importance of the pest, the present study was carried out on the association of different morpho-chemical traits with resistance/susceptibility to M. vitrata at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India. Trichome length and density, sugars, proteins and phenols were found to be associated with resistance to M. vitrata in short-duration pigeonpea genotypes. Pod damage by M. vitrata on different short-duration pigeonpea genotypes in the field ranged from 5.8 to 68%. Laboratory studies showed less consumption of food and reduced larval and pupal weights of M. vitrata when reared on the resistant genotypes ICPL 98003 and ICPL 98008 indicating antibiosis effects of the genotypes. Trichome density on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf (390 and 452/9 mm2), and length (3.5 mm) and trichome density (442/9 mm2) and length (5.9 mm) on pods were found positively correlated with the resistant genotype ICPL 98003. High sugar content in flowers (22%) and pods (10.6%) was responsible for the susceptibility of ICPL 88034, while high phenol concentration in flowers (6.5%) and pods (9.3%) in ICPL 98003 was responsible for resistance. Protein content in pods was significantly higher (25.5%) in susceptible ICPL 88034 when compared with resistant ICPL 98003 (16.5%). Based on these results, ICPL 98003 and ICPL 98008 were categorized as highly resistant and ICPL 98012 as moderately resistant. This paper discusses the physico-chemical traits associated with resistance to M. vitrata in short-duration pigeonpea genotypes.
Clear cell carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare tumour that represents less than one per cent of all salivary tumours. They are divided into a biphasic, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and a monophasic pattern which may be myoepithelial or ductal in origin. The latter is accompanied by prominent fibrohyaline stroma and has been described recently as hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC).
Most of the HCCC occur in the oral cavity, and are associated with minor salivary glands, unlike the biphasic pattern which is more common in the major salivary glands. In the oral cavity, the commonest site is the palate followed by the lips and the buccal mucosa. Its occurrence in the oropharynx and the larynx is extremely rare.
Although lipomas are the most common benign tumours of the head and neck, the involvement of the skull base is rare and it is also very rare for a lipoma to undergo osseous metaplasia to become an ossifying lipoma or osteolipoma. We present a case of a solitary osteolipoma involving the skull base in a 17-year-old girl. A few cases of osteolipoma involving the head and neck have been reported, but this may be the first reported case of a solitary osteolipoma involving the skull base with extension to the infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal space. The computed tomography (CT) scan helped to clinch the diagnosis and the histopathology confirmed it. The clinical presentation, role of CT scan, surgical approach used, histological features and the review of literature are discussed.
A case of subglottic narrowing caused by an extranodal deposit of sinus histiocytosis in a 29-year-old man is reported. The characteristic features of Rosai-Dorfman disease, such as massive painless cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate and raised white cell count, were all found to be absent. However, typical histological features, such as diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, Russel bodies, foamy histiocytes and histiocytes with emperipoiesis, confirmed the diagnosis. Rosai-Dorfman disease is an uncommon disorder and its presentation with progressive subglottic narrowing is extremely rare. Our experience in the management of this condition is reported and the review of literature is discussed.
The CERES-Rice version 3.0 crop growth simulation model was calibrated and evaluated for the agroclimatic conditions of the state of Kerala in India. Genetic coefficients were developed for the rice crop variety Jaya and used for the model evaluation studies. In four experiments using different transplanting dates during the virippu season (June to September) under rainfed conditions (i.e. no irrigation), the flowering date was predicted within an error of four days and date of crop maturity within an error of two days. The model was found to predict the phenological events of the crop fairly well. The grain yield predicted by the model was within an error of 3% for all the transplanting dates, but the straw yield prediction was within an error of 27%. The high accuracy of the grain yield prediction showed the ability of the model to simulate the growth of the crop in the agroclimatic conditions of Kerala. It can be concluded from this study that the model can be used for making various strategic and tactical decisions related to agricultural planning in the state.
The elastic properties of sodium borovanadate glasses have been studied over a wide range of composition using ultrasonic measurements. It is found that variation of different elastic moduli is very similar in any given series of composition. The bulk and shear moduli show a monotonic variation with the covalent bond energy densities calculated from the proposed structural model for these glasses. The bulk moduli also vary as a negative power function of the mean atomic volume. The Debye temperature varies linearly with the glass transition temperature. The implications of the observed behavior have been discussed.
A characterization of group congruences on an eventually regular semigroup S is provided. It is shown that a group congruence is dually right modular in the lattice of congruences on S. Also for any group congruence ℸ and any congruence p on S, ℸ Vp and kernel ℸ Vp are described.
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