In this study, differential mRNA expression patterns of prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the hypothalamus and gonads, and the correlation with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in striped hamster serum from spring, summer, autumn and winter were analyzed. Mature female and male striped hamsters in oestrus were used. Expression levels of PRLR in the hypothalamus, ovaries and testis from the summer and winter individuals were significantly higher compared with levels from the spring and autumn, whereas FSH and LH serum concentrations from summer and winter individuals were significantly lower compared with that from the spring and autumn. PRLR expression levels in hypothalamus, ovaries and testis were negatively correlated with FSH and LH serum concentrations, illustrating that PRLR might negatively regulate seasonal reproductive activity. PRLR expression levels in ovaries and testes were significantly higher compared with levels in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the regulative effects of PRLR in gonads might be significantly higher compared with that in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, PRLR expression levels from the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons in the hypothalamus and gonads were significantly higher in females compared with levels in males, indicating that the regulative effect of PRLR might be sex dependent. Taken together, this study helps to understand in depth the seasonal regulative reproduction mechanism of striped hamsters to reasonably control population abundance.