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It is unknown how much variation in adult mental health problems is associated with differences between societal/cultural groups, over and above differences between individuals.
To test these relative contributions, a consortium of indigenous researchers collected Adult Self-Report (ASR) ratings from 16 906 18- to 59-year-olds in 28 societies that represented seven culture clusters identified in the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavioral Effectiveness study (e.g. Confucian, Anglo). The ASR is scored on 17 problem scales, plus a personal strengths scale. Hierarchical linear modeling estimated variance accounted for by individual differences (including measurement error), society, and culture cluster. Multi-level analyses of covariance tested age and gender effects.
Across the 17 problem scales, the variance accounted for by individual differences ranged from 80.3% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems to 95.2% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality (mean = 90.7%); by society: 3.2% for DSM-oriented somatic problems to 8.0% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 6.3%); and by culture cluster: 0.0% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality to 11.6% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 3.0%). For strengths, individual differences accounted for 80.8% of variance, societal differences 10.5%, and cultural differences 8.7%. Age and gender had very small effects.
Overall, adults' self-ratings of mental health problems and strengths were associated much more with individual differences than societal/cultural differences, although this varied across scales. These findings support cross-cultural use of standardized measures to assess mental health problems, but urge caution in assessment of personal strengths.
We applied the temperament and character inventory (TCI) personality questionnaire in 41 inpatients dependent on metamphetamine, and 35 controls. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence were significantly higher, and persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness were significantly lower in the patients than in the healthy volunteers. The detected differences may be important for prevention and treatment.
Reports linking the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric care with
homelessness and imprisonment have been published widely.
To identify cohort studies that followed up or traced back long-term
psychiatric hospital residents who had been discharged as a consequence
A broad search strategy was used and 9435 titles and abstracts were
screened, 416 full articles reviewed and 171 articles from cohort studies
of deinstitutionalised patients were examined in detail.
Twenty-three studies of unique populations assessed homelessness and
imprisonment among patients discharged from long-term care. Homelessness
and imprisonment occurred sporadically; in the majority of studies no
single case of homelessness or imprisonment was reported.
Our results contradict the findings of ecological studies which indicated
a strong correlation between the decreasing number of psychiatric beds
and an increasing number of people with mental health problems who were
homeless or in prison.
Aplicamos el cuestionario de personalidad Inventario del Temperamento y el Carácter (TCI) en 41 pacientes hospitalizados depen-dientes de metanfetamina y 35 controles. La búsqueda de la novedad, la evitación del daño y la autotranscendencia eran significativamente más altas, y la persistencia, la autodirección y la cooperatividad eran significativamente más bajas en los pacientes que en los voluntarios sanos. Las diferencias detectadas pueden ser importantes para la prevención y el tratamiento.
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