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The aim of the study was to investigate how maternal dietary patterns and maternal/fetal cytokines are associated with birth weight and whether cytokines mediate the association. A total of 469 pregnant women and their children were recruited for this prospective study. Dietary patterns in pregnancy were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Maternal and umbilical blood serum cytokines (adiponectin (APN), IL-6 and interferon-γ) were measured via ELISA. Path analysis was used to explore the relationships between maternal diet, cytokines and birth weight. Four dietary patterns were identified: a mainly fruit, dairy products and poultry diet (FDP); a mainly vegetables, beans and pork diet (VBP); a mainly fish, shrimp and soup diet (FS) and a mainly tuber and egg diet (TE). Path analysis showed the order of effects of dietary patterns on birth weight was FS>FDP>TE>VBP (β=0·130, 0·109, –0·094 and 0·046, respectively). Only the TE pattern’s effect was negative. Maternal and fetal APN were positively associated with birth weight (β=0·045 and 0·226, respectively), and they mediated the association between the TE pattern and birth weight (indirect effect was 5·3 %). Maternal IL-6 was negatively associated with birth weight (β=–0·067) and mediated the association between maternal FDP and VBP patterns and birth weight (indirect effects were 10·1 and 100·0 %, respectively). All variables in the path explained 33·6 % of variation. These results suggested that maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy are associated with birth weight and mediated directly and indirectly through some maternal/fetal serum cytokines.
Soil moisture is a key factor in the ecohydrological cycle in water-limited ecosystems, and it integrates the effects of climate, soil, and vegetation. The water balance and the hydrological cycle are significantly important for vegetation restoration in water-limited regions, and these dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study, the soil moisture and water balance were modelled with the stochastic soil water balance model in the Loess Plateau, China. This model was verified by monitoring soil moisture data of black locust plantations in the Yangjuangou catchment in the Loess Plateau. The influences of a rainfall regime change on soil moisture and water balance were also explored. Three meteorological stations were selected (Yulin, Yan'an, and Luochuan) along the precipitation gradient to detect the effects of rainfall spatial variability on the soil moisture and water balance. The results showed that soil moisture tended to be more frequent at low levels with decreasing precipitation, and the ratio of evapotranspiration under stress in response to rainfall also changed from 74.0% in Yulin to 52.3% in Luochuan. In addition, the effects of a temporal change in rainfall regime on soil moisture and water balance were explored at Yan'an. The soil moisture probability density function moved to high soil moisture in the wet period compared to the dry period of Yan'an, and the evapotranspiration under stress increased from 59.5% to 72% from the wet period to the dry period. The results of this study prove the applicability of the stochastic model in the Loess Plateau and reveal its potential for guiding the vegetation restoration in the next stage.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
Previous studies have demonstrated that language switching in bilinguals can be affected by a number of variables, including the processing context. Here, we used a modified language-switching task combined with a Stroop paradigm, which manipulated the context of the task, to examine the impact of processing context on switch costs. The results of both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 showed that the switch costs and the level of asymmetry in the switch costs are larger in the conflicting context than in the non-conflicting context, suggesting that the processing context affects the switch costs. In addition, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that individual variances in cognitive control capacity also play a role in the overall magnitude of the switch costs. Critically, processing context effects can be modulated by individual variance in cognitive control capacities. The results of this study are discussed within the framework of classic models of bilingual language control (e.g., the inhibitory control model).
Porous carbon nanomaterials with significant capacitive performance were successfully prepared through a simple two-step process of thermal-polymerization and carbonization without an additional template. As a result, the as-prepared porous carbon nanomaterials of sample-A and sample-B exhibited an amorphous phase with low graphitization. And sample-A showed a moderate specific surface area of 476.39 m2/g, larger than that of sample-B (280.94 m2/g). The relatively high mass specific capacitance of 205.1 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and 211 F/g at a current density of 4 A/g was obtained by sample-A, which are higher than those of sample-B (82.6 F/g at 5 mV/s and 78.6 F/g at 4 A/g). Sample-A also showed excellent conductivity and superior cyclic stability with 94.19% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, which are also higher than those of sample-B. This work proposed a cost-effective, green, and promising strategy for the large-scale preparation of porous carbon nanomaterial electrodes.
In this article, we report on the preparation of few-layered MoS2/graphene nanocomposite (MoS2/GNS-G) with enlarged interlayer distance as the lithium-ion battery anode via a facile hydrothermal method followed by glucose-assisted thermal annealing. During the synthesis, glucose serving as a small organic molecule can interlay into MoS2 nanosheets, which effectively hinder the aggregation and restacking of MoS2 during the process of heat treatment, retaining a sandwich structure of the composite. The enlarged interlayer distance (approximately 0.98 nm), along with the inserted amorphous carbon, could promote efficient lithium migration into active sites, buffer the volume change and stabilize the electrode structure effectively during the lithium insertion/extraction cycling. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the MoS2/GNS-G delivers a high discharge capacity of 1583.0 mA h/g in the initial cycle at current density of 100 mA/g. The specific capacity remained at the relative high value of 673.5 mA h/g even at a current density of 1000 mA/g.
A novel two-stage reheating process with new alloy design has been developed to improve the microstructure morphology of semisolid Al–Si casting aluminum alloy for thixoforming. The process consists of first reheating the material to the liquidus temperature, holding for 5 min, and then lowering to the predetermined two-stage reheating temperature between 843–863 K and holding for 10 min. The experimentally-obtained grain diameter, roundness, and the amount of liquid trapped within the solid phase were characterized, along with the microstructure obtained using the traditional feedstock reheating process. The Wilcox test (with α = 0.05) was then applied to statistically analyze the measured differences in the microstructures obtained using the two different processing routes. It was found that a refined near-spherical structure with uniform globule size, higher sphericity, lower coarsening rate constant, and less entrapped liquid was obtained via the new two-stage reheating process in comparison with the microstructure obtained using the traditional feedstock reheating process.
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in China and to examine the relationship between MetS and its associated early-life factors.
Data were collected using a standard parent/guardian questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Each participant underwent a complete anthropometric evaluation. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF; 2007) for children and adolescents.
Guangzhou, a large city in South China, September 2013.
A total of 1770 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study, including 913 girls (51·6 %) and 857 boys (48·4 %).
The overall prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents was 1·1 % (n 19), which was higher in boys (1·4 %) than in girls (0·8 %). Multivariate analysis indicated that high birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity (OR=2·86; 95 % CI 1·62, 5·06) and MetS (OR=3·61; 95 % CI 1·33, 9·82). Furthermore, >6 months of maternal breast-feeding was inversely associated with MetS (OR=0·39; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·98).
Based on IDF criteria, the prevalence of MetS among southern Chinese children was significantly lower than that in other populations. High birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity and MetS, and breast-feeding for longer than 6 months was inversely associated with MetS in South China.
Interoperability of GNSS Open Services is a significant trend in the development of all the satellite navigation systems, and its performance will directly affect the users' security and reliability. Therefore, the monitoring and assessment of GNSS Open Services has become a focus of attention for all providers and users of GNSS. In this paper the elements and methods for the monitoring and assessment of GNSS Open Services are investigated first. Then the schemes designed for an international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) are proposed. The schemes are based on omni-directional antennas, multi-beam antennas and a high-gain paraboloid antenna to achieve Quadruple-overlap and Single-overlap coverage and sophisticated analysis respectively. Moreover, the scheme for the deployment of world-wide monitoring stations is also proposed. Finally, some related works that have been conducted to monitor and assess Beidou Open Services are introduced, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed system.
Current-voltage, light I-V and internal quantum efficiency characteristics have been investigated in specular TCO/n+(a-Si:H)/i(a-Si:H)/Nickel Schottky barrier cell structures with protocrystalline intrinsic layers. The studies were carried out on structures with different thickness i layers after a degraded steady state had been reached with AMI.5 illumination at 27°C. These characteristics were modeled using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures(AMPS) and a gap state distribution, which includes charged defects, used in the analysis of results of detailed studies on thin films. Fits are obtained to these characteristics for the different thickness cell structures using the same parameters as those used to fit the results on the corresponding intrinsic thin films. The results obtained from this study offer an approach to more reliable modeling of solar cells at their “end of life”.
Studies have been carried out on a-Si:H materials and corresponding solar cells fabricated with and without hydrogen dilution of silane by rf PECVD. The effect of hydrogen dilution on the growth kinetics and microstructures and their dependence on the substrate temperature have been studied. Hydrogen diluted a-Si:H materials and solar cells exhibit improved properties and higher stability to light induced changes. Distinct differences are found in the electron mobility lifetime (μτ) products and subgap absorption over a wide range of generation rates. Striking differences are also found in the kinetics of light induced degradation in both the materials and their corresponding solar cells. Direct correlations are presented between the degradation kinetics of p(a-SiC:H)/i(a-Si:H)/n(μc-Si) solar cells and those of thin film materials constituting the i-layers.
Studies have been carried out on the thickness dependent transition between the amorphous and microcrystalline phases in intrinsic Si:H materials (i-layers) and its effect on p-i-n solar cell performance . P(a-SiC:H)-i(a-Si:H)-n(μcSi:H) cell structures were deposited with the intrinsic Si:H layer thickness and the flow ratio of hydrogen to silane, R=[H2]/[SiH4], guided by an evolutionary phase diagram obtained from real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry. The thickness range over which the fill factors are controlled by the bulk was established and their characteristics investigated with different protocrystalline i-layer materials (i.e., materials prepared near the amorphous to microcrystalline boundary but on the amorphous side). Insights into the properties of these materials and the effects of the transition to the microcrystalline phase were obtained from the systematic changes in the initial fill factors, their light-induced changes, and their degraded steady states for cells with i-layers of different thickness and H2 dilution.
This research investigates the role of the substrate in the synthesis of carbon coils. Coils were produced on tungsten, titanium, and glassy carbon substrates via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) on electrochemically deposited nickel at 800°C, but the growth varied among the samples. Coils were also produced on pure nickel by the same CVD method. Using tungsten as a substrate, carbon coils intermixed with thin carbon nanotubes were produced in high-yield from nickel particle clusters. On the titanium substrate, carbon coils were synthesized in small, high-yield patches with few co-produced carbon nanotubes. Synthesis from nickel clusters on glassy carbon usually resulted in amorphous carbon, but sparse, low-yield coil growth was observed. Carbon coils were also synthesized when pure nickel wire was used without a separate substrate. These results indicate the nickel catalyst controls the production of carbon coils, but the substrate has some effect on the yield. Carbon coils synthesized were either microcoils, which have diameters of a few microns, or nanocoils, which have diameters of one or two hundred nanometers.
Virtual population analysis (VPA) is often used for assessing freshwater and
marine fisheries resources. One important component in VPA is to calibrate
abundance estimates with a time series of abundance indices. One of the
commonly used calibration processes usually includes simultaneous estimation
of cohort sizes across all ages and years. This reduces the flexibility of
the model in accounting for age- and year-effects, in particular in the
presence of an age-specific curvilinear relationship between abundance index
and stock abundance. In this study, we compared this simultaneous method
tuning approach with a stepwise approach which calibrates abundance age by
age in tuning VPA. The simulation study suggests that the stepwise procedure
tends to perform better with no obvious retrospective errors in the
estimated stock biomass compared with the simultaneous method which tends to
have large positive retrospective errors. In applying the stepwise procedure
and simultaneous method to a cod fishery data set, we found large
differences in the stock sizes estimated for the most recent year using
these two methods, with the current stock size estimated using the stepwise
method being substantially smaller than that estimated with the simultaneous
method. Considering the likelihood of the presence of curvilinear
relationship between abundance index and stock abundance, we conclude that
the stepwise method yields more reliable results, and is less risk-prone in
using VPA for fisheries stock assessment.
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