To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalized patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46,549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI, and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37,190 (80%) and 9,359 (20%) patients had NRS-2002 scores < 3 and ≥ 3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥ 3 had longer lengths of stay (12.6±7.8 days vs. 10.4±6.2 days, P < 0.05), higher mortality rates (9.6% vs. 2.5%, P<0.05), and higher incidence of AKI (28% vs. 16%, P < 0.05) than normal nutritional patients. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (area under the curve (AUC) 0.79 and 0.71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0.80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI, and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis, that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than normal nutritional patients.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of glucose, soy oil, or glutamine on jejunal morphology, protein metabolism, and protein expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway in jejunal villus or crypt compartment of piglets. Forty-two 21 d-weaned piglets were randomly allotted to one of the three isocaloric diets formulated with glucose, soy oil, or glutamine for 28 days. On day 14 or 28, the proteins in crypt enterocytes were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification, and proteins involved in mTORC1 signaling pathway in villus or crypt compartment cells were determined by western blotting. Our results showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in jejunal morphology among the three treatments on day 14 or 28. The differentially expressed proteins mainly took part in a few network pathways, including antimicrobial or inflammatory response, cell death and survival, digestive system development and function, and carbohydrate metabolism. On day 14 or 28, there were higher protein expression of 4EBP1 in jejunal crypt compartment of piglets supplemented with glucose or glutamine compared with soy oil. On day 28, higher protein expression of p-mTOR in crypt compartment was observed in piglets supplemented with glucose compared with the soy oil. In conclusion, the isocaloric glucose, soy oil, or glutamine did not affect the jejunal morphology of piglets; however, they had different effects on the protein metabolism in crypt compartment. Compared to soy oil, glucose or glutamine may be better energy supplies for enterocytes in jejunal crypt compartment.
Anatase phase NOx/S6+–TiO2 (x= 0, 1) film with high solar-driven activity has been successfully prepared via electro-assisted oxidation processes. The morphological and structural properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, while the optical property was detected by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the NOx/S6+–TiO2 film was composed of “flower-like” microvoids structure and displayed broad and strong optical absorption at around 544 and 1500 nm. Transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the generation and separation of photogenerated charges were significantly enhanced under simulated solar irradiation. The NOx/S6+–TiO2 film exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), and the decoloration rate and TOC removal respectively reached 98.97 and 59.44% at 20 min under solar irradiation. The film still had good stability after reusing ten times. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis was suggested in MO degradation by using NOx/S6+–TiO2 film.
Pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pine parasitic nematode, poses a serious threat to its host pine forests globally. When dispersal-stage larvae 4 (dauer, DL4) of B. xylophilus enters the new pine, it moults into propagative adult (dauer recovery) and reproduces quickly to kill the host pine. Here, we found pine chemical volatiles, rather than the common dauer recovery factors of nematodes (e.g. suitable temperatures, nutrient availability or density), promote B. xylophilus dauer recovery. The results showed that volatilization of chemicals in host pines could attract DL4 and promote DL4 recovery. To identify which chemicals promote this process, we determined the stimulated activity of the main volatiles of pines including six monoterpenes and two sesquiterpenes. Results showed that all the six monoterpenes promoted dauer recovery, especially β-pinene and β-myrcene, but the two sesquiterpenes have no effect on the transformation. Furthermore, β-pinene performed gradient effects on dauer recovery. We hypothesized that when DL4 infect pine trees, the pine volatiles released from the feeding wounds are used as chemical signals for DL4 transformation to adult to reproduce and rapidly kill the pines. Our study identified the B. xylophilus dauer recovery chemical signal and may contribute to preventing pine wilt disease.
There is a dearth of data on the iodine balance studies of Chinese population. In the present study, we aimed to explore the appropriate recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iodine based on healthy Chinese women. A 4-week study was conducted in twenty-five Chinese euthyroid women. Uniform diets with different iodine contents were provided in two different periods, in which non-iodised salt was given in the first 3 weeks, followed by 1 week of iodised salt administration. The total iodine intake from diet, water and air as well as the total iodine excretion through urine, faeces and respiration were monitored and determined. The sweat iodine loss was also considered. Moreover, the regression curve model was established between the 24 h iodine intake and 24 h iodine excretion. The 24 h iodine intake in the two periods was 194·8 (sd 62·9) and 487·1 (sd 177·3) μg/d, respectively. The 24 h iodine excretion was 130·9 (sd 39·5) and 265·4 (sd 71·8) μg/d, respectively. Both 24 h iodine intake and 24 h iodine excretion of the two periods were significantly different (all P<0·05). The iodised salt contributed approximately 62·7 % of the total daily iodine intake. Moreover, 92·3 % (277/300) of samples were in positive balance, while twenty-three cases were in negative balance. Our data show that the estimated average requirement for iodine was 110·5 μg/d. Therefore, the RNI for iodine to non-pregnant, non-lactating Chinese women was 154·7 μg/d.
Some firms use hidden knowledge facilitators (HKFs) to facilitate knowledge sharing among employees within intrafirm online communities. These firms hope for enhanced knowledge sharing outcomes within their organizations without letting employees know that HKFs exist. Yet, the extent to which HKFs’ interventions are effective remains unknown to researchers and managers. Built on the knowledge sharing (KS) literature, this study explores the unique roles of HKFs as moderators between a company and its employees. We develop several hypotheses to test the impact of the quantity and quality of HKFs’ online interventions on several KS outcomes. By analyzing log data of a Chinese corporation's online R&D community, we find that (1) the quantity of HKFs’ intervention has a mostly positive impact on KS outcomes; (2) the quality of HKFs’ intervention has a mixed impact on several KS outcomes, depending on which aspect of quantity is considered; and (3) the quality of HKFs’ intervention also moderates the positive impact of the quantity of HKFs’ intervention in different ways on different intended KS outcomes. This study makes a clear contribution to the literature on knowledge sharing and knowledge facilitation by demonstrating the impact of HKFs on KS outcomes in a Chinese context.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable mental illness that transmits intergeneratively. Previous studies supported that first-degree relatives (FDRs), such as parents, offspring, and siblings, of patients with bipolar disorder, had a higher risk of bipolar disorder. However, whether FDRs of bipolar patients have an increased risk of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear.
Among the entire population in Taiwan, 87 639 patients with bipolar disorder and 188 290 FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were identified in our study. The relative risks (RRs) of major psychiatric disorders were assessed among FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were more likely to have a higher risk of major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (RR 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.95–6.30), MDD (RR 2.89, 95% CI 2.82–2.96), schizophrenia (RR 2.64, 95% CI 2.55–2.73), ADHD (RR 2.21, 95% CI 2.13–2.30), and ASD (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.92–2.29), than the total population did. These increased risks for major psychiatric disorders were consistent across different familial kinships, such as parents, offspring, siblings, and twins. A dose-dependent relationship was also found between risk of each major psychiatric disorder and numbers of bipolar patients.
Our study was the first study to support the familial coaggregation of bipolar disorder with other major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, MDD, ADHD, and ASD, in a Taiwanese (non-Caucasian) population. Given the elevated risks of major psychiatric disorders, the public health government should pay more attention to the mental health of FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
A mixture copula is a linear combination of several individual copulas that can be used to generate dependence structures not belonging to existing copula families. Because different pairs of markets may exhibit quite different dependence structures in empirical studies, mixture copulas are useful in modeling the dependence in financial data. Therefore, rather than selecting a single copula based on certain criteria, we propose using a model averaging approach to estimate financial data dependence structures in a mixture copula framework. We select weights (for averaging) by a J-fold Cross-Validation procedure. We prove that the model averaging estimator is asymptotically optimal in the sense that it minimizes the squared estimation loss. Our simulation results show that the model averaging approach outperforms some competing methods when the working mixture model is misspecified. Using 12 years of data on daily returns from four developed economies’ stock indexes, we show that the model averaging approach more accurately estimates their dependence structures than some competing methods.
An all-fiberized high-average-power narrow linewidth ns pulsed laser with linear polarization is demonstrated. The laser system utilizes a typical master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is effectively suppressed due to the short fiber length and large mode area in the main amplifier, combined with the narrow pulse duration smaller than the phonon lifetime of SBS effect. A maximal output power of 466 W is obtained with a narrow linewidth of
203.6 MHz, and the corresponding slope efficiency is
80.3%. The pulse duration is condensed to be
4 ns after the amplification, corresponding to the peak power of 8.8 kW and the pulse energy of
. Near-diffraction-limited beam quality with an
factor of 1.32 is obtained at the output power of 442 W and the mode instability (MI) is observed at the maximal output power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power of the all-fiberized narrow linewidth ns pulsed fiber laser with linear polarization and high beam quality, which is a promising source for the nonlinear frequency conversion, laser lidar, and so on.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
A high-precision line-of-sight extraction technique is essential for autonomous optical navigation during the Mars approach phase. To support future Mars exploration missions, an optical image simulation system is a necessary ground verification facility for Mars image generation and line-of-sight extraction algorithm tests. In this paper, an optical image generation procedure is first developed according to projection relationships, reference flight profiles and camera parameters. Next, a hybrid image processing and subpixel-level line-of-sight extraction algorithm is proposed through modification of moment-based sub-pixel edge detection and improvement of direct least-square fitting approaches. Finally, an optical image simulation system is established, and the experimental results show that the proposed procedure can effectively simulate the optical image in the field-of-view of a Mars spacecraft, and the hybrid extraction algorithm can obtain high-precision Mars centroid information.
Invasive smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) eradication is important for the health of many coastal ecosystems. An integrated regime of continuous submergence after clear mowing, with three interval levels between mowing and submergence (5, 10, and 15 d) and three submergence depths (20, 30, and 50 cm), was implemented in cofferdams enclosing invader populations along a Chinese coast. In July of the following year, after the roots of mowed S. alterniflora had been submerged for 12 mo, some ramets grew under the regime with an interval of 15 d and the regime with a submergence depth of 20 cm, but no ramets occurred under the regimes with submergence depths of 30 or 50 cm and intervals of 5 or 10 d. Four crab species were documented: Helice tridens tientsinensis Rathbun, Sesarma dehaani H. Milne-Edwards, Ocypode stimpsoni Ortmann, and Chiromantes haematocheir de Haan. Biomass and abundance values of crab species in the cofferdams were similar to those in the mudflats but different from those in smooth cordgrass populations. Thus, the treatment of submergence after mowing, which was implemented in the cofferdams, can control S. alterniflora and provide a mudflat-like habitat that promotes crab recovery if this treatment uses the proper combination of submergence depth and interval between mowing and submergence.
Ethanolamine (Etn) contained in milk is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine and is required for the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria, which is important for maintenance of the gut microbiome and intestinal development. The present study investigated the effect of Etn on intestinal function and microbiome using 21-d-old Sprague–Dawley rats treated with 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μm Etn in drinking water for 2 weeks immediately after weaning. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and mucosal immunity, as well as gut microbiota community composition, were evaluated. Metagenomic prediction and metabolic phenotype analysis based on 16S RNA sequencing were also carried out to assess changes in metabolic functions. We found that weaned rats administered 500 μm Etn enhanced mucosal antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in the jejunum (P<0·05) compared with those in the control group. Predominant microbes including Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Elusimicrobia and Tenericutes were altered by different levels of Etn compared with the control group. An Etn concentration of 500 µm shifted colonic microbial metabolic functions that are in favour of lipid- and sugar-related metabolism and biosynthesis. Etn also altered the metabolic phenotypes such as anaerobic microbial counts, and oxidative stress tolerance at over 250 µm. This is the first report for a role of Etn in modifying gut microbiota and intestinal functions. Our findings highlighted the important role of Etn in shaping gut microbial community and promotes intestinal functions, which may provide a better insight of breast-feeding to infant’s gut health.
In this work, activated carbon was modified by ammonium persulfate and used as the catalyst support for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol. Then CuO and/or ZnO were loaded on the support by a facile wet-impregnation method. The obtained CuZn/C, Cu/C, and Zn/C catalysts were characterized by a series of characterization techniques including N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron (XPS), and scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). XRD and XPS results showed that ZnO affected the reduction of Cu2+. The TEM results showed that Cu particles were 14–18 nm for the fresh catalysts CuZn/C and Cu/C. ZnO particles were too small to be identified by TEM. The used catalysts CuZn/C and Cu/C had particle sizes of 10–25 nm and 50–60 nm, respectively. The enhanced methanol synthesis performance by ZnO could be ascribed to the morphology effect and slowing down the Cu particles sintering during the reactions.
The Luziyuan Pb–Zn skarn deposit, located in the Baoshan–Narong–Dongzhi block metallogenic belt in SW China, is hosted by marble and slate in the upper Cambrian Shahechang Formation. Three skarn zones have been identified from the surface (1495 m above sea level (asl)) to a depth of 1220 m asl: zone 1 consists of chlorite–actinolite–calcite–quartz, zone 2 of rhodonite–actinolite–fluorite–quartz–calcite, and zone 3 contains garnet–rhodonite–actinolite–fluorite–quartz–calcite. The deposit formed in four distinct mineralization stages: an early anhydrous skarn (garnet, rhodonite and bustamite) stage (Stage 1), a hydrous skarn (actinolite and chlorite) stage (Stage 2), an early quartz (coarse barren quartz veins) stage (Stage 3) and a late sulphide-forming (fine sulphide-bearing quartz veins) stage (Stage 4). The Stage 1 skarn-forming fluid temperature was at least 500 °C according to the geothermometer with rhodonite/bustamite trace elements measured by laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A decrease in ore fluid temperatures with time is consistent with the decreases in the δ18Ofluid and δDfluid values from Stage 3 to 4. This trend suggests that the ore fluid was mainly derived from magmatic water and mixed with large amounts of meteoric water during mineralization. The δ34S values of Stage 4 chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are similar to those of an Ordovician gypsum layer, and together with the high-salinity fluids in Stage 4 indicate the dissolution of evaporites in the Luziyuan region. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the Luziyuan deposit is a distal Pb–Zn skarn deposit that formed in response to multi-stage alteration associated with a combination of magmatic water and meteoric water.
A new band-reject frequency-selective surface (FSS) based on dual-band near-zero refractive index metamaterial (ZIM) design is presented in this paper. Consisting of a planar array of complementary dual-layer symmetry resonant ring, the proposed FSS exhibits a high-selective band-reject filtering response. From the viewpoint of effective medium, the subwavelength FSS is characterized by near-zero effective magnetic permeability and near-zero effective electric permittivity in two different operational bands, respectively. The corresponding resonant behavior and E-field distributions are analyzed in detail. A prototype of the proposed FSS working in X-band is fabricated and measured. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness and correctness of the ZIM-based design method.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified for CHDs, yet a large part of the genetic risk factors remain unexplained. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are thought to be completely genetically identical; however, discordant phenotypes have been found in MZ twins. Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between MZ twins. We aimed to test whether copy number variants (CNVs) and/or genetic mutation differences play a role in the etiology of CHDs by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays and whole exome sequencing of twin pairs discordant for CHDs. Our goal was to identify mutations present only in the affected twins, which could identify novel candidates for CHD susceptibility loci. We present a comprehensive analysis for the CNVs and genetic mutation results of the selected individuals but detected no consistent differences within the twin pairs. Our study confirms that chromosomal structure or genetic mutation differences do not seem to play a role in the MZ twins discordant for CHD.
Drawing from self-concept and implicit leadership theories, we propose a multilevel model to examine whether, why, and when self-sacrificial leadership motivates followers’ affiliative and challenging citizenship behaviors in China. Data from 329 full-time employees in 83 work groups provide support for the hypothesized model. Specifically, we demonstrated that self-sacrificial leadership was positively related to followers’ relational self-concept constructs of leader identification and leader-based self-esteem, which had differential, downstream implications for followers’ two types of citizenship behavior. Whereas leader identification was found to mediate the positive relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and affiliative citizenship behavior only, leader-based self-esteem mediated the positive relationships of self-sacrificial leadership with both affiliative and challenging citizenship behaviors. We further demonstrated individual power distance orientation as a significant cultural contingency in the above mediation relationships, which were found to exist among followers with low rather than high power distance orientations. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.