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Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is the use of a machine to filter wastes, salts and fluid from blood for at least 3 months to prolong the life of patients with advanced kidney failure. Although low dietary energy intake (DEI) has been observed in MHD patients, few studies have related DEI to the risk of mortality. To explore this relationship, a study included 1039 MHD patients from 8 centers was conducted. DEI was assessed by three 24-hour diet recalls including one dialysis day and two non-dialysis days, and was normalized to ideal body weight (IBW). All-cause mortality and CVD mortality were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. During a median follow-up of 28 months, all-cause and CVD mortality occurred in 230 (22.1%) and 140 (13.5%) participants. Overall, a U-shaped relationship was observed between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality. The risk of all-cause mortality decreased significantly with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <40kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and increased significantly with the increase of DEI in those with DEI ≥40kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 1.12; 95%CI: 1.04-1.20). Similarly, the risk of CVD mortality decreased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI <36.5kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 0.96; 95%CI: 0.93-0.99) and increased with the increase of DEI in participants with DEI ≥36.5kcal/kg IBW/d (HR, 1.11; 95%CI: 1.04-1.18). In summary, there was a U-shaped association between DEI and all-cause or CVD mortality, with a turning point at about 40 and 36.5 kcal/kg IBW/d, respectively, in MHD patients.
The present study compared the protective effect of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on heat stress (HS)-invoked porcine IPEC-J2 cellular damage and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoprotein. Cells were cultured at 37°C until 80 % confluence and then subjected to four different conditions for 24 h: at 37°C (control), 41·5°C (HS), 41·5°C supplied with 0·42 µmol Se/L SS (SS), or SeMet (SeMet). HS significantly decreased cell viability, up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)). HS-induced cell injury was associated with the up-regulation (P < 0·05) of six inflammation-related genes and fourteen selenoprotein encoding genes and down-regulation (P < 0·05) of two inflammation-related genes and five selenoprotein encoding genes. Compared with the HS group, SS and SeMet supplementation resulted in an increase (P < 0·05) in cell viability, decreased (P < 0·05) mRNA expression of HSP70 and six inflammation-related genes and rescue (P < 0·05) of mRNA and protein levels of CLDN-1 and ZO-1. SS and SeMet supplementation changes the expressions of nineteen selenoprotein encoding genes in cells affected by HS. Both Se supplementation significantly recovered the protein level of glutathione peroxidase-1 and increased selenoprotein P in the IPEC-J2 cells under HS, respectively. In summary, Se supplementation alleviated the negative impact of HS on IPEC-J2 cells, and their cellular protective effect was associated with regulation expression of selenoproteins, and SeMet exhibited a better protective effect.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.
We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
Fabrication and characterization of solution-processed, all-inorganic quantum dots (QDs) light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) incorporating colloidal CdSe/ZnS QDs are presented. Using a simple solvothermal process, Cu-doped NiO nanocrystals were fabricated and applied as a hole transport layer in all inorganic QLEDs. Cu-doped NiO nanocrystals are ascribed to bunsenite cubic structure. The transmittance of the film is more than 81%. The hole-only devices of Au/QDs/Cu–NiO/ITO structures showed that 5% mol Cu doped NiO film obtained the largest hole current. The resulting devices show pure QD electroluminescent emissions with a maximum electroluminescence brightness of 2258 cd/m2 after doping 5% mol Cu in NiO, which is almost 4-fold compared with that of intrinsic NiO due to the enhanced carrier concentration and conductivity. The current efficiency and EQE of the assembled all-inorganic QLED exhibited the maximum values of 1.18 cd/A and 1.223%, respectively.
Previous studies have inferred a strong genetic component in schizophrenia. However, the genetic variants involved in the susceptibility to schizophrenia remain unclear.
To detect potential gene pathways and networks associated with schizophrenia, and to explore the relationship between common and rare variants in these pathways and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
The analysis included 100 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls. A network-based analysis was carried out on the data collected from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Phase I (PGC-I). Based on our genome-wide association study and whole-exome sequencing data-sets, we performed a gene-set analysis to detect associations between the combining effects of common and rare genetic variants and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
Patients had significantly reduced functional anisotropy in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, left and right precuneus and extra-nuclear (t = 4.61–5.10, PFDR < 0.01), compared with controls. Generated from co-expression network analysis of the PGC-1 summary statistics of schizophrenia, a subnetwork of 207 genes associated with schizophrenia was identified (P < 0.01), and 176 genes were co-expressed in four gene modules. Functional enrichment analysis for genes in each module revealed that the yellow module was enriched with highly co-expressed, innate immune response genes. Furthermore, rare variants of enriched genes in the yellow module were associated with reduced functional anisotropy in the left anterior cingulate cortex (P = 0.006; Padjusted = 0.024) in patients only.
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia may be substantially influenced by genes involved in the immune system, via both pathway and network.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
With so many spectroscopic surveys, both past and upcoming, such as SDSS and LAMOST, the number of accessible stellar spectra is continuously increasing. There is therefore a great need for automated procedures that will derive estimates of stellar parameters. Working with spectra from SDSS and LAMOST, we put forward a hybrid approach of Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the stellar atmospheric parameters effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity. For stars with both APOGEE and LAMOST spectra, we adopt the LAMOST spectra and APOGEE parameters, and then use KPCA to reduce dimensionality and SVM to measure parameters. Our method provides reliable and precise results; for example, the standard deviation of effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity for the test sample come to approximately 47–75 K, 0.11–0.15 dex and 0.06–0.075 dex, respectively. The impact of the signal:noise ratio of the observations upon the accuracy of the results is also investigated.
The Micro-Nano satellite TianTuo-3 (TT-3) developed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) was successfully launched on 20 September 2015. The space-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) on board TT-3 works well and stably receives AIS signals from global vessels. In this work, we perform statistical analysis on the detection probability of the vessels in the concerned areas by using the TT-3 AIS data. The results suggest that the detection probability of vessels decreases as the distribution density increases, especially in the offshore areas of dense traffic and the TT3-AIS vessel detection probability in the oceans can be higher than 40%, indicating that the TT-3 AIS has achieved a high probability of coverage of vessels for a single receiving antenna. The analysis results will present helpful references both in evaluating the potential application of satellite-based AIS and for designing the next generation space-based AIS which might greatly improve the detection probability of ocean-going vessels.
The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) measures the Hubble Constant by determining geometric distances to circumnuclear 22 GHz H2O megamasers in galaxies at low redshift (z < 0.05) but well into the Hubble flow. In combination with the recent, exquisite observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background by WMAP and Planck, these measurements provide a direct test of the standard cosmological model and constrain the equation of state of dark energy. The MCP is a multi-year project that has recently completed observations and is currently working on final analysis. Based on distance measurements to the first four published megamasers in the sample, the MCP currently determines H0 = 69.3 ± 4.2 km s−1 Mpc−1. The project is finalizing analysis for five additional galaxies. When complete, we expect to achieve a ~4% measurement. Given the tension between the Planck prediction of H0 in the context of the standard cosmological model and astrophysical measurements based on standard candles, the MCP provides a critical and independent geometric measurement that does not rely on external calibrations or a distance ladder.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
The K-type and H-type transitions of a natural convection boundary layer of a fluid of Prandtl number 7 adjacent to an isothermally heated vertical surface are investigated by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). These two types of transitions refer to different flow features at the transitional stage from laminar to turbulence caused by two different types of perturbations. To excite the K-type transition, superimposed Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) and oblique waves of the same frequency are introduced into the boundary layer. It is found that a three-layer longitudinal vortex structure is present in the boundary layer undergoing the K-type transition. The typical aligned
-shaped vortices characterizing the K-type transition are observed for the first time in pure natural convection boundary layers. For exciting the H-type transition, superimposed TS and oblique waves of different frequencies, with the frequency of the oblique waves being half of the frequency of the TS waves, are introduced into the boundary layer. Unlike the three-layer longitudinal vortex structure observed in the K-type transition, a double-layer longitudinal vortex structure is observed in the boundary layer undergoing the H-type transition. The successively staggered
-shaped vortices characterizing the H-type transition are also observed in the downstream boundary layer. The staggered pattern of
-shaped vortices is considered to be caused by temporal modulation of the TS and oblique waves. Interestingly the flow structures of both the K-type and H-type transitions observed in the natural convection boundary layer are qualitatively similar to those observed in Blasius boundary layers. However, an analysis of turbulence energy production suggests that the turbulence energy production by buoyancy rather than Reynolds stresses dominates the K-type and H-type transitions. In contrast, the turbulence energy production by Reynolds stresses is the only factor contributing to the transition in Blasius boundary layers.
Although the brittle material in analogue models is characterized by a linear Navier-Coulomb behaviour and rate-independent deformation, the geometry and style of deformation in accretionary wedges is sensitive to shortening velocity. In this study we have constructed a series of analogue models with various shortening velocities in order to study the influence of shortening velocity on the geometry and kinematics of accretionary wedges. Model results illustrate how shortening velocity has an important influence on the geometry and kinematics of the resulting wedge. In general, for models having similar bulk shortening, the accretionary wedges with higher velocities of shortening are roughly steeper, higher and longer, as well as having larger critical wedge angles and height. It accommodates a number of foreland-vergent thrusts, larger fault spacing and displacement rates than those of low- to medium-velocity shortening, which indicates a weak velocity-dependence in geometry of the wedge. Moreover, models with a high velocity of shortening undergo larger amounts of volumetric strain and total layer-parallel shortening than models with low- to medium-velocity shortening. The former accommodate a greater development of back thrusts and asymmetric structures; a backwards-to-forwards style of wedge growth therefore occurs in the frontal zone under high-velocity shortening.
Currently large sky area spectral surveys like SDSS, 2dF, and LAMOST, using the new generation of telescopes and observatories, have provided massive spectral data sets for astronomical research. Most of the data can be automatically handled with pipelines, but visually inspection by human eyes is still necessary in several situations, like low SNR spectra, QSO recognition and peculiar spectra mining. Using ASERA, A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant, we can set up a team spectral inspection platform. On a preselected spectral data set, members of a team can individually view spectra one by one, find the best match template and estimate the redshift. Results from different members will be gathered and merged to raise the team work efficiency. ASERA mainly targets the spectra of SDSS and LAMOST fits data formats. Other formats can be supported with some conversion. Spectral templates from SDSS and LAMOST pipelines are embedded and users can easily add their own templates. Convenient cross identification interfaces with SDSS, SIMBAD, VIZIER, NED and DSS are also provided. An application example targeting finding strong emission line spectra from LAMOST DR2 is presented.
A series of characterization tests were performed to elucidate the high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior in SAE 1050 steel subjected to tensile elastic pre-deformation at different strain rates. In the pre-strained stage, the deformation was maintained constant at 0.16%, which was close to the low yield point at strain rates ranging from 10−5 s−1 to 10−2 s−1. Although pre-deformation occurred entirely in the elastic regime, using different pre-straining rates resulted in the occurrence of heterogeneous microscopic strain at different sites and locations during subsequent fatigue tests. It was found that the effect of pre-straining rate on crack initiation and crack propagation was not monotonous and was influenced by the homogeneity of deformation within grain boundaries, the integrity of the boundary structure, and the fracture toughness. In addition, the rough set theory model was introduced for the attribute reduction of characteristic parameters and provided a scientific basis to establish the fatigue model. The model was able to effectively predict the lifetime of the process of HCF in pre-strained steel. Hence, the pre-straining rate should be an important boundary condition in further studies.
Interleukin (IL)-13-associated signal pathway plays an important role in schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis. In this study we tried to investigate the effects of corilagin to ameliorate schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis through regulating IL-13-associated signal pathway in vitro and in vivo. Cellular model was set up with hepatic stellate cells-T6 cells stimulated by rIL-13 and male Balb/c mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum cercariaeas as animal model. Liver histological changes were observed with haematoxylin and eosin staining. Masson staining was employed to observe the change of egg granulomas. Expression of Col (collagen) and Col III were examined with Immunohistochemistry. Western bolt was employed to detect the JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 proteins. The mRNA expression of Col I, Col III, IL-13, JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As a result, less inflammatory changes were found in all corilagin groups compared with model group and praziquantel group. The mRNA levels of Col I, Col III, IL-13, JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 were significantly decreased after corilagin intervention (P < 0·01). JAK-1 and IL-13Rα1 protein levels were also greatly decreased in the corilagin groups (P < 0·01). In conclusion, corilagin could ameliorate schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis by down-regulating the expression of IL-13 and signal molecules in IL-13 pathway.
Double deformation technique is often used to study static recrystallization (SRX) behavior of materials, and SRX volume fraction can be calculated by the analysis of the stress–strain curve from this technique. The suggested methods to analyze the curve are different, which may lead to different results or even large deviation. In the present research, the methods were discussed based on the stress–strain curves from double deformation compression tests. The results showed that 2% offset method agrees well with 5% total strain method and they can give a better evaluation of SRX volume fraction for the tested steel in the absence of precipitates. While the results from 2% offset or 5% total strain method deviate from the ones from area measurement method when precipitation occurs. Therefore, area measurement method is more suitable when precipitates play a role in SRX process. However, the strain should be large enough to perform this method.
The present study was performed to identify the genotype of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family and investigate the clinicopathogenic characteristics and prognostic features of relevant genetic abnormalities. Target sequence capture sequencing was performed to screen for pathogenic alleles in a 32-year-old female patient (proband). Sanger sequencing was carried out to verify the results. Sanger sequencing was also performed on other family members to identify allele carriers. A survival analysis was carried out using published literature and our findings. We found that the proband and her son harboured a Gly716Arg sequence variant of the β-myosin heavy chain. Neither the proband’s father nor the mother were carriers of this sequence variant; thus, the mutation was classified as “de novo”. Further survival analysis revealed that female patients appear to have a longer life expectancy compared with males. Our study may provide an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Orthocoelium streptocoelium is a common paramphistome species parasitizing the rumen and/or reticulum of small ruminants, leading to significant losses. This study first determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of O. streptocoelium. The complete mt genome of O. streptocoelium was amplified, sequenced, assembled, analysed and then compared with those of other digeneans. The entire mt genome of O. streptocoelium is 13,800 bp in length, which is smaller than those of other digeneans except for Opisthorchis viverrini. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the O. streptocoelium mt genome is the same as those of other digeneans except for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes representing 16 digeneans were conducted to assess the relationship of O. streptocoelium with other digeneans. The result indicated that O. streptocoelium is closely related to Paramphistomum cervi and Fischoederius elongates, which is in accordance with their relationships by taxonomy. This complete mt genome of O. streptocoelium enriched the mitochondrial genome data of paramphistomes and provided important molecular markers for diagnostics and studies of population variation, epidemiology, ecology and evolution of O. streptocoelium and other digeneans.