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A new locality with silicified permineralised plant megafossils is reported from the upper Turonian of Colombiers, Vienne, western France. The plant fossil assemblage consists of Geinitzia reichenbachii (Geinitz) Hollick et Jeffrey and ‘Lomatopteris' superstes Saporta. Whilst G. reichenbachii is a worldwide widespread Cretaceous conifer, ‘L.' superstes is reported in western France for the first time. The latter fossil shows bipinnately compound leaf, marginal teeth, one thick primary vein, pinnate secondary veins and faint, reticulate, narrower veins. Besides its fern-like gross morphology, these characters indicate that it most likely belongs to angiosperms and eudicots. The formation of silicified nodules bearing such fossils from the Cenomanian to the Coniacian of western France was previously attributed to the secondary silicification of limestones during Cenozoic climatic weathering episodes. However, based on both petrography and preservation evidence, we demonstrate that it was an endogenic process contemporaneous to the earliest stages of fossil diagenesis created by palaeoenvironmental and climatic conditions.
The natural way to use Answer Set Programming (ASP) to represent knowledge in Artificial Intelligence or to solve a combinatorial problem is to elaborate a first-order logic program with default negation. In a preliminary step, this program with variables is translated in an equivalent propositional one by a first tool: the grounder. Then, the propositional program is given to a second tool: the solver. This last one computes (if they exist) one or many answer sets (stable models) of the program, each answer set encoding one solution of the initial problem. Until today, almost all ASP systems apply this two steps computation. In this article, the project ASPeRiX. is presented as a first-order forward chaining approach for Answer Set Computing. This project was among the first to introduce an approach of answer set computing that escapes the preliminary phase of rule instantiation by integrating it in the search process. The methodology applies a forward chaining of first-order rules that are grounded on the fly by means of previously produced atoms. Theoretical foundations of the approach are presented, the main algorithms of the ASP solver ASPeRiX. are detailed and some experiments and comparisons with existing systems are provided.
Some studies have shown that bilinguals gesture more than monolinguals. One possible reason for the high gesture frequency is that bilinguals rely on gestures even more than monolinguals in constructing their message. To test this, we asked French–English bilingual adults and English monolingual adults to tell a story twice; on one occasion they could move their hands and on the other they could not. If gestures aid bilinguals in information packaging and/or lexical access, bilinguals should tell shorter stories with fewer word types than monolinguals when their gestures are restricted. In fact, we found that gesture restriction affected bilinguals’ stories only in French, the language in which they used more gestures. These findings challenge the interpretation that bilinguals gesture frequently as an aid in constructing their message. We argue that cultural norms in gesture frequency interact with gesture use in message construction.
Emerging data indicate that higher levels of insulin resistance (IR) are common among children and adolescents and are related to cardiometabolic risk; therefore, IR requires consideration early in life. In addition, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the role of dietary nutrients on IR. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in European adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years. A total of 637 participants with valid homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index data and who completed at least a 2 d 24 h dietary recall were included in the study (60 % of the total HELENA-CSS sample). There were two dietary indices calculated, with the only difference between them being the inclusion or not of physical activity (PA). Markers of IR such as HOMA and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Pubertal status, BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were measured as potential confounders. The dietary index including PA was inversely associated with HOMA and directly with the QUICKI in females, but not in males, after adjusting for pubertal status, centre, BMI and CRF. In conclusion, the present study indicates that considering PA as part of the dietary index is of relevance as the resulted index is inversely related to IR independently of potential confounders including CRF. Overall, these findings suggest that intervention studies aimed at preventing IR in young people should focus on increasing the quality of the diet and also on including an optimal PA level in healthy adolescents.
An adequate nutritional intake in childhood and adolescence is crucial for growth and the prevention of youth and adult obesity and nutrition-related morbidities. Improving nutrient intake in children and adolescents is of public health importance. The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate the nutrient intake in a European sample using the D-A-CH nutrient intake recommendations and the Nutritional Quality Index (NQI).
The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, the main objective of which is to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years.
Eight cities in Europe.
The initial sample consisted of 3528 European adolescents. Among these, 1590 adolescents (54 % female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and nutrient intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software.
The intakes of most macronutrients, vitamins and minerals were in line with the D-A-CH recommendations. While the intakes of SFA and salt were too high, the intake of PUFA was too low. Furthermore, the intakes of vitamin D, folate, iodine and F were less than about 55 % of the recommendations. The median NQI was about 71 (of a maximum of 100).
The intakes of most nutrients were adequate. However, further studies using suitable criteria to assess nutrient status are needed. Public health initiatives should educate children and adolescents regarding balanced food choices.
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood.
The purse seine fishery in the Western Indian Ocean is dominated by Spanish
and French vessels that rely heavily on the use of drifting fish aggregation
devices (DFADs) to capture tropical tuna species (skipjack, yellowfin and
bigeye tuna). This study uses local ecological knowledge (LEK) obtained
through standardized interviews of fishing masters to compare and
characterize the body of local ecological knowledge, fishing technology and
fishing strategies of both fleets, with the goal of obtaining useful
information for the management of the fishery. A notable difference between
fleets was the number of DFADs actively monitored per vessel at any given
time, which was much higher for Spanish vessels (ca. 60 versus 20 DFADs).
Spanish vessels also achieved higher vessel CPUE (catch per DFAD set) than
their French counterparts. The use of supply vessels to manage, monitor and
protect productive DFADs, and the latest satellite-based technology to track
and remotely monitor DFAD aggregations is restricted to the Spanish fleet.
The French do not use supply vessels and deploy less sophisticated tracking
buoys. These technological disparities resulted in some fishing strategy
differences between both fleets, but few differences were found in the
knowledge of tuna behavior accumulated by the fishers.
The seismology and physics of localized structures beneath the surface of the Sun takes on a special significance with the completion in 2006 of a solar cycle of observations by the ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and by the instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Of course, the spatially unresolved Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BiSON) has been observing for even longer. At the same time, the testing of models of stellar structure moves into high gear with the extension of deep probes from the Sun to other solar-like stars and other multi-mode pulsators, with ever-improving observations made from the ground, the success of the MOST satellite, and the recently launched CoRoT satellite. Here we report the current state of the two closely related and rapidly developing fields of helio- and asteroseimology.
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