Farmers grow crops in the dryland region of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using tillage practices ranging from moldboard plowing to no-tillage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tillage on persistence of imazamox herbicide in intermediate and high precipitation zones of the inland PNW. Along with a nontreated control, imazamox was applied to imidazolinone-tolerant winter wheat in the fall and spring at one, two, and three times the maximum labeled rate at locations near Genesee, ID, Davenport, WA, and Pendleton, OR. Moldboard plow, chisel plow, and no-till tillage treatments were implemented soon after wheat harvest and yellow mustard was planted the following season to determine crop response. Experiments were conducted at each location in 2005 to 2007 and 2006 to 2008. There were significant location by year and year and location interactions. There was no significant tillage by imazamox rate interaction, except at Pendleton in year 2, for all measured yellow mustard responses (crop injury, biomass, and yield). Genesee was colder than Pendleton and had more precipitation than Davenport, resulting in more injury to yellow mustard at Genesee than at Pendleton but less than at Davenport. Davenport had greater injury than the other two locations, likely due to lower soil pH, higher organic matter (OM), and cooler, drier climate, which allowed imazamox to persist longer in the soil. Overall, Pendleton had the least yellow mustard injury, which likely was related to its warmer, wetter climate and the concomitant rapid soil dissipation of imazamox. Tillage did not reduce the persistence of imazamox. Yellow mustard had the lowest injury and had greater mature biomass and seed yield in no-till seeded plots when averaged across imazamox rates compared to moldboard and chisel-plowed plots.