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Cognitive tests of inhibitory control show variable results for the differential diagnosis between behavioural variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the diagnostic accuracies of tests of inhibitory control and of a behavioural questionnaire, to distinguish bvFTD from AD.
Three groups of participants were enrolled: 27 bvFTD patients, 25 AD patients, and 24 healthy controls. Groups were matched for gender, education, and socio-economic level. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of inhibitory control, including Hayling Test, Stroop, the Five Digits Test (FDT) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDT). Caregivers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11).
bvFTD and AD groups showed no difference in the tasks of inhibitory control, while the caregiver questionnaire revealed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive (BIS-11: bvFTD 76.1+9.5, AD 62.9+13, p < .001).
Neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control failed to distinguish bvFTD from AD. On the contrary, impulsivity caregiver-completed questionnaire provided good distinction between bvFTD and AD. These results highlight the current limits of cognitive measures of inhibitory control for the differential diagnosis between bvFTD and AD, whereas questionnaire information appears more reliable and in line with clinical diagnostics.
Invasive winter annual grass infestations on rangeland accumulate large quantities of litter on the soil surface, as plants senesce yearly and decompose slowly. It has been speculated that winter annual grass litter can adsorb soil-active herbicides and reduce overall performance. Three experiments were conducted from 2017 to 2018 at the Colorado State University Weed Research Laboratory to evaluate interception and subsequent desorption of herbicides applied to litter from three invasive winter annual grass species with simulated rainfall. Imazapic, rimsulfuron, and indaziflam were applied to medusahead [Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski], ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.], and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) litter at two amounts (equivalent to 1,300 and 2,600 kg ha−1). Rainfall was simulated at 3, 6, 12, and 24 mm at 0, 1, and 7 d after herbicide application. Herbicide concentration from the collected rainfall was measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. At 2,600 kg ha−1, B. tectorum herbicide interception was 84.3%, while V. dubia and T. caput-medusae averaged 76% herbicide interception. There were no differences in desorption among the three litter types. Simulated rainfall at 0 d after application recovered 100% of the intercepted rimsulfuron and imazapic from B. tectorum litter, while recovery decreased to 65% with rainfall at 1 or 7 d after application. Only 54% of indaziflam could be recovered at 0 d, and recovery decreased to 33% when rainfall was applied at 1 or 7 d after application. Applying soil-active herbicides before forecasted rain or tank mixing with a POST herbicide to provide initial control could potentially increase the amount of herbicide reaching the soil and provide more consistent invasive winter annual grass control.
Regeneration from seed affects species assembly in plant communities, and temperature is the most important environmental factor controlling the germination process. Thermal dependence of seed germination is thus associated with species occurrence in an ecosystem. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of temperature on seed germination of ten tree species from the western Brazilian Amazon. Seeds were collected in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and set to germinate under constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C in germination chambers. We calculated germination capacity (G%), germination rate (GR50, reciprocal of germination time), and thermal parameters, such as cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirements. Most species had a large range of temperatures showing G% ≥80%, with optimal temperature varying from 20 to 40°C. Base temperature ranged from 6 to 12°C and ceiling temperatures were mainly >40°C. Astronium lecointei and Parkia nitida showed high germination capacity under temperatures of 35–40°C, while germination of Theobroma cacao dropped from 100% to zero under temperatures between 37 and 40°C. The climax species Cedrela fissilis had the slowest germination time (10 days) and highest thermal time requirement, while seeds of Enterolobium schomburgkii (a late-successional species) germinated within the first day of the experiment. Rapid recruitment of Amazon species could be favoured with treefall disturbance, which increases temperatures in the understory, but sharp limits might be found in the supra-optimal range of temperatures. Such patterns might indicate different regeneration strategies in the tropical rainforest, providing important information regarding seed germination among Amazon species.
New therapeutic approaches are necessary to control strongyloidiasis due to the side effects of, and resistance to, currently available drugs thiabendazole, albendazole, and ivermectin. This study examined the anthelmintic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from Siparuna guianensis against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae, using the egg hatching test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT). Albendazole (0.025 mg/ml) and ivermectin (0.316 mg/ml) were used as the positive controls for the EHT and LMT assays, respectively. Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs or larvae (±50 specimens) were treated with ethanol extract (0.05–1.0 mg/ml), ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (0.05–0.8 mg/ml), essential oil (0.2–1.0 mg/ml) and α-bisabolol (0.2–1.0 mg/ml) from S. guianensis, and analysed by optical microscopy after 48 h (EHT), or after 24, 48 and 72 h (LMT). All the tested compounds exhibited ovicidal activity equivalent to the positive control and changed the morphology of the eggs. The S. guianensis ethanol extract and aqueous fraction were as effective as the positive control. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract and fractions revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids. Therefore, S. guianensis is effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, and can be considered as a potential alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected parasitic condition endemic in the Americas caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Patients present an acute phase that may or not be symptomatic, followed by lifelong chronic stage, mostly indeterminate, or with cardiac and/or digestive progressive lesions. Benznidazole (BZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs approved for treatment but not effective in the late chronic phase and many strains of the parasite are naturally resistant. New alternative therapy is required to address this serious public health issue. Repositioning and combination represent faster, and cheaper trial strategies encouraged for neglected diseases. The effect of imatinib (IMB), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed for use in neoplasias, was assessed in vitro on T. cruzi and mammalian host cells. In comparison with BZ, IMB was moderately active against different strains and forms of the parasite. The combination IMB + BZ in fixed-ratio proportions was additive. Novel 14 derivatives of IMB were screened and a 3,2-difluoro-2-phenylacetamide (3e) was as potent as BZ on T. cruzi but had low selectivity index. The results demonstrate the importance of phenotypic assays, encourage the improvement of IMB derivatives to reach selectivity and testify to the use of repurposing and combination in drug screening for CD.
Spineless cactus is a useful feed for various animal species in arid and semiarid regions due to its adaptability to dry and harsh soil, high efficiency of water use and carbohydrates storage. This meta-analysis was carried out to assess the effect of spineless cactus on animal performance, and develop and evaluate equations to predict dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in meat lambs. Equations for predicting DMI and ADG as a function of animal and diet characteristics were developed using data from eight experiments. The dataset was comprised of 40 treatment means from 289 meat lambs, in which cactus was included from 0 to 75% of the diet dry matter (DM). Accuracy and precision were evaluated by cross-validation using the mean square error of prediction (MSEP), which was decomposed into mean bias, systematic bias and random error; concordance correlation coefficient, which was decomposed into accuracy (Cb) and precision (ρ); and coefficient of determination (R2). In addition, the data set was used to evaluate the predicting accuracy and precision of the main lamb feeding systems (Agricultural and Food Research Council, Small Ruminant Nutritional System, National Research Council and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) and also two Brazilian studies. The DMI, CP intake (CPI), metabolizable energy (ME) intake and ADG increased when cactus was included up to 499 g/kg DM (P<0.001). In contrast, animals fed high levels of cactus (>500 g/kg DM) had a decreased DMI, CPI and NDF intake, but increased feed efficiency (P<0.001) and similar ADG compared with those without cactus addition. The DMI was positively correlated with initial BW, final BW, concentrate and ADG, while it was negatively correlated with cactus inclusion and ME of the diet. On other hand, ADG was positively correlated with DMI, initial and mean BW and concentrate, and it was negatively correlated with cactus inclusion. The two developed equations had high accuracy (Cb of 0.95 for DMI and 0.94 for ADG) and the random error of MSEP was 99% for both equations. The precision of both equations was moderate, with R2 values of 0.53 and 0.50 and ρ values of 0.73 and 0.71 for DMI and ADG, respectively. In conclusion, the developed equation to predict DMI had moderate precision and high accuracy, nonetheless, it was more efficient than those reported in the literature. The proposed equations can be a useful alternative to estimate intake and performance of lambs fed cactus.
Although previous studies have reported Leptospira carriage in kidneys and urine of cats, the role of these animals in leptospirosis epidemiology remains poorly understood. Using molecular methods, we investigated Leptospira renal carriage in 172 feral cats from Reunion Island, an oceanic geographically isolated island located in the South West Indian Ocean. Only one out of the 172 analysed specimens tested positive for Leptospira DNA through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using this positive sample, we could obtain sequences at three Leptospira loci (rrs2, lipL32 and lipL41) allowing to report for the first time Leptospira borgpetersenii naturally infecting cats. Comparisons with bacterial sequences from both acute human cases and animal reservoirs revealed similarities with Leptospira sequences previously reported on Reunion Island. However, the low prevalence (0.6%) reported herein does not support any major role of feral cats in leptospirosis epidemiology on Reunion Island, contrasting with results recently reported on another Indian Ocean Island, Christmas Island. The significance of these discrepancies is discussed.
The study aims to evaluate the antiprotozoal activities of 20 plant metabolites on Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. Compounds 1–20 were obtained and identified by using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The antiparasitic assays were performed on the intracellular form of T. cruzi and L. amazonensis using human leukaemic THP-1 cells as the host. The mechanism of action of the most active compounds was explored in silico by molecular docking using T. cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR) as a target, whereas the in vitro studies were performed by enzymatic assay using T. cruzi recombinant TR. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. Two flavonoids, one triterpene and three acetogenins showed from high to moderate trypanocidal activities with IC50 values ranging 3.6–37.2 µm while three of the metabolites were moderately leishmanicidal. The molecular docking study revealed interactions between TR and the most trypanocidal compounds 1 (abyssinone IV) and 2 (atalantoflavone). In contrast, both showed no effect on TR in vitro. For the mitochondrial membrane potential assay, atalantoflavone (2) displayed a dose-dependent depolarization. On the basis of the aforementioned results, this compound's structure could be chemically explored in order to develop more potent trypanocidal derivatives.
Graded exercises tests are performed in adult populations; nonetheless, the use of this type of assessment is greatly understudied in overweight and obese adolescents.
To investigate heart rate autonomic responses to submaximal aerobic exercise in obese and overweight adolescents.
We recruited 40 adolescents divided into two groups: (1) overweight group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls between Z-score +1 and +2 and (2) obese group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls above Z-score >+2. Heart rate variability was analysed before (T1) and after exercise (T2–T4) on treadmill at a slope of 0%, with 70% of the maximal estimated heart rate (220 – age) for 20 minutes.
Heart rate in the overweight group was: 93.2±10.52 bpm versus 120.8±13.49 bpm versus 94.6±11.65 bpm versus 93.0±9.23 bpm, and in the obese group was: 92.0±15.41 bpm versus 117.6±16.31 bpm versus 92.1±12.9 bpm versus 91.8±14.33 bpm. High frequency in the overweight group was: 640±633.1 ms2 versus 84±174.66 ms2 versus 603.5±655.31 ms2 versus 762.6±807.21 ms2, and in the obese group was: 628.4±779.81 ms2 versus 65.4±119.34 ms2 versus 506.2±482.70 ms2 versus 677.9±939.05 ms2; and root mean square of successive differences in the overweight group was: 37.9±18.81 ms versus 10.9±8.41 ms versus 32.8±24.07 ms versus 36.7±21.86 ms, and in the obese group was: 38.7±23.17 ms versus 11.5±8.62 ms versus 32.3±16.74 ms versus 37.3±24.21 ms. These values significantly changed during exercise compared with resting values in overweight and obese groups. Moreover, we also reported no significant difference of resting parasympathetic control of heart rate between obese and overweight adolescents.
There was no significant difference of autonomic responses elicited by submaximal aerobic exercise between overweight and obese adolescents.
The increase of sheep meat competitiveness in international markets can be attributed to the rise of the quantity and the improvement of the quality of the edible portion of sheep carcasses. Usually, carcass yield is established after the slaughter of the animals. Yet, when carcass yield is determined in vivo, it can be both a costly and subjective method. This study proposes models for predicting the physical characteristics of lamb carcass using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in live animals. Thirty-one Texel × Ile de France crossbreed ram lambs were slaughtered at 20, 26, 32 or 38 kg of BW. Before the slaughter, values of resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were collected using a single-frequency BIA equipment (Model RJL Quantum II Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer). Then, BIA main variables such as body bioelectrical volume (V), phase angle (PA), resistive density (RsD) and reactive density (XcD) were calculated. After slaughter, cold carcass weight (CCW), cold carcass yield (CCY), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), soft tissue weight (STW) and soft tissue yield (STY) were also measured. Multiple regression analyses were carried out using the physical characteristics as dependent variables and the bioimpedance values as independent variables. Predictive performance of the models was assessed using leave-one-out cross-validation. The prediction model of CCW was obtained using the V, PA and RsD (R2 = 0.97), STW through the V, RsD and XcD (R2 = 0.97), CCY by Rs, Z and XcD (R2 = 0.69), STY by V and XcD (R2 = 0.67), and SFT only for XcD (R2 = 0.84). The results indicated that BIA has the potential to predict carcass characteristics of lambs at different body masses.
The Roosevelt–Rondon Expedition marmoset Mico marcai was first collected in 1914 and all information on this primate previously came from three skins brought back by this expedition. As a result, M. marcai is categorized as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List. As the presumed range of M. marcai lies on the path of the advancing arc of deforestation in Brazil, the collection of relevant data to assess the conservation status of this Amazonian species is of some urgency. Here we present the first field data on the distribution and population size of, and threats to, M. marcai, to reassess the species’ conservation status. During 2012–2015 we surveyed the species in the Marmelos–Aripuanã interfluve, and estimated its density using distance sampling. We also used spatial predictive modelling to estimate forest loss within the species range under two deforestation scenarios. We found the marmoset in 13 localities and estimated its extent of occurrence to be 31,073 km2. We estimated the species’ density to be 8.31 individuals/km2 and extrapolated this to estimate a total population of 258,218 individuals (CI 150,705–441,860). Under a business-as-usual deforestation scenario, c. 10,000 km2 of forest, comprising 33% of the species’ range, would be lost in three marmoset generations (c. 18 years), and we, therefore, recommend that M. marcai be categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List based on criterion A3c. Other Amazonian marmosets require similar reassessment as their ranges also fall in the path of the arc of deforestation.
High rates of mental illness and addictions are well documented among youth in Nicaragua. Limited mental health services, poor mental health knowledge and stigma reduce help-seeking. The Mental Health Curriculum (MHC) is a Canadian school-based program that has shown a positive impact on such contributing factors. This pilot project evaluated the impact of the MHC on mental wellness and functioning among youth in Leon, Nicaragua.
High school and university students (aged 14–25 years) were assigned to intervention (12-week MHC; n = 567) and control (wait-list; n = 346) groups in a non-randomized design. Both groups completed measures of mental health knowledge, stigma and function at baseline and 12 weeks. Multivariate analyses and repeated measures analyses were used to compare group outcomes.
At baseline, intervention students showed higher substance use (mean difference [MD] = 0.24) and lower perceived stress (MD = −1.36) than controls (p < 0.05); there were no other group differences in function. At 12 weeks, controlling for baseline differences, intervention students reported significantly higher mental health knowledge (MD = 1.75), lower stigma (MD = 1.78), more adaptive coping (MD = 0.82), better lifestyle choices (MD = 0.06) and lower perceived stress (MD = −1.63) (p < 0.05) than controls. The clinical significance as measured by effect sizes was moderate for mental health knowledge, small to moderate for stigma and modest for the other variables. Substance use also decreased among intervention students to similar levels as controls (MD = 0.03) (p > 0.05).
This pilot investigation demonstrates the benefits of the MHC in a low-and-middle-income youth population. The findings replicate results found in Canadian student populations and support its cross-cultural applicability.
The use of forage legumes has been proposed as a means of generating sustainable grazing environments. Their limited use, particularly in tropical pastures, is partially due to the limited knowledge regarding the efficiency of utilization by animals. The present study characterized the sward structure, nutritive value and ingestive behaviour of dairy heifers in pastures of peanut cv. Belmonte under continuous stocking management. Treatments corresponded to sward heights of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm, according to a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The following response variables were evaluated: vertical distribution of the morphological components within the sward, forage mass, nutritive value (simulated grazing), bite rate (BR), bite mass (BM) and short-term herbage intake rate (STIR). The top half of the sward height was mainly composed of leaves and the bottom half mainly of stolon and dead material regardless of management height. Greater values of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were recorded during autumn, while higher values of in-vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility (0·85) occurred during spring regardless of management height for the grazed stratum. In relation to treatments, greater values of crude protein were recorded on swards managed at 5 cm (0·27) and 10 cm (0·26). Bite rate, BM and STIR varied with sward height, but not with a season of the year. The STIR followed a broken line response to sward height, with increasing values up to 13·1 cm (106 g DM/kg body weight). Sward structure played an important role in determining the STIR. To maximize the STIR of dairy heifers under continuous stocking management, swards should be managed at heights of not <13·1 cm.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with diarrheal illness. In the USA, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been documented almost every year since the mid-1990s. The typical approach used to identify this parasite in human stools is an examination of acid-fast-stained smears under bright-field microscopy. UV fluorescence microscopy of wet mounts is more sensitive and specific than acid-fast staining but requires a fluorescence microscope with a special filter not commonly available in diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we evaluated a new DNA extraction method based on the Universal Nucleic Acid Extraction (UNEX) buffer and compared the performances of four published real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the specific detection of C. cayetanensis in stool. The UNEX-based method had an improved capability to recover DNA from oocysts compared with the FastDNA stool extraction method. The best-performing real-time PCR assay was a C. cayetanensis-specific TaqMan PCR that targets the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. This new testing algorithm should be useful for detection of C. cayetanensis in human stool samples.
Cepheids are excellent stellar tracers: they are bright enough to be observed even at large distances; their distances can be accurately determined via period-luminosity relations; their spectra contain numerous lines that enable us to derive abundances for many α, iron-peak or neutron-capture elements. Classical Cepheids are yellow supergiants that trace the young populations (⩽ 300 Myr); Type II Cepheids are post Horizontal Branch, low-mass, Population II stars (⩾ 10 Gyr). Both can be used for many purposes in Milky Way archaeology.
The present study describes Demidospermus spirophallus n. sp. and Demidospermus prolixus n. sp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the siluriform catfish Loricaria prolixa Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1978 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, supported by morphological and molecular data. In addition, notes on the circumscription of the genus with a redescription of Demisdospermus anus are presented. Demidospermus spirophallus n. sp. differed from other congeners mainly because of the morphology of the male copulatory organ (MCO), which exhibited 2½ counterclockwise rings, a tubular accessory piece with one bifurcated end and a weakly sclerotized vagina with sinistral opening. Demidospermus prolixus n. sp. presents a counterclockwise-coiled MCO with 1½ rings, an ovate base, a non-articulated groove-like accessory piece serving as an MCO guide, two different hook shapes, inconspicuous tegumental annulations, a non-sclerotized vagina with sinistral opening and the absence of eyes or accessory eyespots. The present study provides, for the first time, molecular characterization data using the partial ribosomal gene (28S) of two new species of Demidospermus from Brazil (D. spirophallus n. sp. and D. prolixus n. sp.), and Demidospermus anus from Loricariichthys platymetopon Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1979 collected in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Additionally, a revision of the species composition of this genus and others that occur in catfish is proposed to elucidate problems with their circumscription. The Brazilian species of Demidospermus clustered together as sister taxa among Neotropical dactylogyrids from siluriforms. The morphological characterization of D. spirophallus n. sp. and D. prolixus n. sp., and the molecular data of the three species in the present study will extend knowledge about this monogenean genus from the Neotropical region, and provide new information for future phylogeny studies.
Plants’ ability to rebuild their tiller population is affected by weather changes and management strategies. The hypothesis of the present study was that frequency and severity of defoliation alter Mulato grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis × Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) sward development, and the proportion of aerial and basal tillers, interfering with sward stability. The objective was to evaluate aerial, basal and total tiller population density and changes in tillering dynamics. Treatments corresponded to strategies of rotational grazing characterized by combinations between two pre-grazing (95% and maximum canopy light interception during regrowth; LI95% and LIMax) and two post-grazing conditions (15 and 20 cm stubble height). The experimental period comprised four seasons of the year: summer 2008 (February–March 2008); autumn–early spring (April to mid-November 2008); late spring (mid-November–December 2008); and summer 2009 (January–March 2009). Density of aerial tillers decreased from summer 2008 to late spring. Tiller death decreased from summer 2008 to autumn–early spring. Aerial and total tiller death increased from late spring to summer 2009, mainly for the LI95% treatment. No differences were observed in the tiller population stability index of aerial tillers for LI treatments or post-grazing heights. The balance between tiller appearance and death for basal tillers remained relatively stable from summer 2008 to late spring. For aerial tillers the balance decreased to negative values from summer 2008 to autumn–early spring for both LI treatments. For total tiller population, the balance decreased to negative values from summer 2008 to autumn–early spring. Results indicated a strong seasonal effect on Mulato grass tillering and growth. Tillering dynamics were affected primarily by grazing frequency, which changed the relative importance of basal and aerial tillers. The results suggested that basal tillering was the predominant perennation pathway.
The number of days of data required to accurately estimate usual nutrient intake of children is not well established. This study aims to calculate the variability and the number of days required to estimate usual nutrient intake in children aged 13–32 months. This cross-sectional study, which is part of the BRISA Project in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, involved 231 children from April 2011 to January 2013. Socio-economic and demographic data were collected using a questionnaire, and 3 non-consecutive days of food consumption were collected using a 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) survey. Intrapersonal and interpersonal variability and variance ratio (VR) were obtained for each nutrient using the Multiple Source Method® program (version 1.0.1). The number of days (d) needed was calculated using the formula proposed by Black et al. for different correlation coefficients (r) (i.e. 0·7, 0·8 or 0·9). For the vast majority of nutrients, intrapersonal and interpersonal variability values of <1 were observed, with even smaller intrapersonal variabilities, resulting in low VR (<1). More days were needed to estimate intakes of soluble fibre (12), insoluble fibre (11), total fibre (10), vitamin C (9) and PUFA (7), while fewer days were needed for energy, carbohydrate, SFA, Ca, Fe, P and Zn (all had 2 d for r 0·9). However, most nutrients required one, two or three 24HDR for r 0·7, 0·8 or 0·9.