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Consistent evidence suggests that face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) may be equally effective depression treatments. Current clinical research focuses on detecting the best predictors-moderators of efficacy to guide treatment personalisation. However, individual moderator studies show inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of CBT and IPT, including combined treatment with antidepressants for depression, and evaluate the predictive power of demographic, clinical presentation and treatment characteristics moderators for both therapies.
PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Library were systematically searched through December 2017 for studies that have assessed individuals with major depression receiving either CBT or IPT in a face-to-face format both at pre- and post-treatment. Random-effects moderator meta-analyses were conducted.
In total 168 samples from 137 studies including 11 374 participants qualified for the meta-analytic review. CBT and IPT were equally effective across all but one prespecified moderators. For psychotherapy delivered without concomitant antidepressant treatment [antidepressant medications (ADMs)], CBT was superior to IPT (g = 1.68, Qbetweenp = 0.037). Within-CBT moderator analyses showed that increased CBT efficacy was associated with lower age, high initial depression severity, individual format of administration and no adjunctive ADMs. Within-IPT analyses showed comparable efficacy across all moderators.
Clinical guidance around combined treatment (psychotherapy plus ADMs) should be reconsidered. CBT alone is superior to IPT alone and to combined treatment, while IPT alone is non-inferior to combined treatment. More research is needed to assess the moderating effect of older age and number of previous episodes on IPT efficacy.
To assess community mental health in suburban Dublin in 2018, 5 years after Ireland’s economic recession ended.
A cross-sectional, face-to-face, household survey was conducted in a random cluster sample of 351 households in Tallaght, a deprived suburb of Dublin.
A majority of respondents (61.3%) reported stress over the previous 12 months, with a higher rate in areas of high (66.9%) compared to lower deprivation (55.5%). Deprivation was not related to rates of loneliness (20.2%), feeling depressed (20.2%), loss of interest (19.7%) or anxiety (22.5%). Mean score for positive mental health (59.3/100, with a higher score indicating better mental health) was lower than that reported in a national sample in 2007 (68/100); positive mental health was associated with not living with a person with chronic illness, self-identifying as ‘non-Irish’ and greater age. Mean score for psychological distress (76.7/100, with a higher score indicating less distress) was also lower than that in 2007 (82/100); less psychological distress was associated with not living with a person with chronic illness or disability, greater age and identifying as non-Irish. The rate of ‘probable mental illness’ over the previous 4 weeks (13.1%) was higher than in 2007 (7%).
Our findings emphasise the high prevalence of stress, especially in deprived suburban areas; the centrality of carer burden in determining mental wellbeing; and associations between positive mental health on the one hand and greater age and identifying as non-Irish on the other.
The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the process of initiation and progression to problematic use among young people who reach clinically significant levels of substance use requiring treatment.
Twenty young people, aged between 15 and 19 years from two different drug treatment centres in Ireland were interviewed regarding their views on their pathway into substance use, their progress to more problematic use, their perception of their parents’ role, if any, in their trajectory and their typical coping style before treatment. Content analysis was conducted on the resulting narratives.
The use of substances to cope with life stressors emerged as a prominent theme at initial and problematic stages of use. Multiple maladaptive coping approaches were reported. Both direct and indirect influences from parents in their substance use problem were cited. However, some participants reported that parents had no causal role in their substance use trajectory, in particular regarding mothers.
The current findings suggest that substance misuse is a multi-determined problem and a number of intervention strategies are suggested to delay onset and related harms associated with adolescent substance use.
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