To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The last few years have witnessed exponential growth in research output within the field of language aptitude. With contributions from an international team of leading experts, this volume provides the most comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date overview of developments in language aptitude theory and practice. It addresses central and newly emerging methodological and theoretical issues, and revisits and re-examines the most popular language aptitude tests, including the most durable and innovative batteries. It also provides in-depth demonstrations of language aptitude research paradigms, including well-established and emerging ones, scrutinizing them from multidisciplinary perspectives. Aptitude treatment interactions studies are reported and discussed, and pedagogical implications are provided, to illuminate theory construction, test development, policymaking, curriculum design and classroom practice. Seamlessly integrating theory, research, assessment and practice, it is essential reading for anyone seeking to learn more about language learning, training and teaching, and will further advance the research in this exciting, fast-paced field.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
Our study was conducted to assess the sepsis-associated hospitalisations and antimicrobials prescribed for sepsis inpatients in Hong Kong. Demographic, diagnostic and antimicrobial prescription data were analysed for patients admitted to public hospitals with a diagnosis of septicaemia from 2000 to 2015. A total of 223 250 sepsis hospitalisations were recorded in Hong Kong from 2000 to 2015 during which the hospitalisation rate increased by 85.6%. The majority of the sepsis hospitalisations occurred in adults ≥65 years and children aged 0–4 years. Adults with a secondary diagnosis of sepsis were often admitted with a primary diagnosis of urological conditions or pneumonia; whereas diabetes mellitus was the most common secondary diagnosis among those with primary sepsis. Paediatric sepsis patients aged 0–4 years were often diagnosed with disorders relating to short gestation and low birthweight. Antimicrobial prescriptions increased by 51.1% and 34.4% for primary and secondary sepsis patients, respectively. β-Lactam and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations were the most used antibiotics whereas the usage of carbapenems increased more than 10 times over the study period. A substantial burden of hospitalisations was attributable to sepsis in Hong Kong, particularly in the extremes of age. Broad-spectrum and last-resort antibiotics had been increasingly dispensed for sepsis inpatients.
High-quality primary care reduces premature mortality in the general population, but evidence for psychiatric patients in China is scarce.
To confirm excess mortality in patients with severe mental illness (SMI), and to examine the impact of community-based mental healthcare and other risk factors on their mortality.
We included 93 655 patients in 2012 and 100 706 in 2013 from the national mental health surveillance system in Sichuan, China to calculate the standardised mortality ratio (SMR). A total of 112 576 patients were followed up from 2009 to 2014 for model analyses. We used growth models to quantify the patterns of change for community management measures, high-risk behaviour, disease stability and medication adherence of patients over time, and then used multilevel proportional hazard models to examine the association between change patterns of management measures and mortality.
The SMR was 6.44 (95% CI 4.94–8.26) in 2012 and 7.57 (95% CI 5.98–9.44) in 2013 among patients with SMI aged 15–34 years, and diminished with age. Unfavourable baseline socioeconomic status increased the hazard of death by 38–50%. Positive changes in high-risk behaviour, disease stability and medication adherence had a 54% (95% CI 47–60%), 69% (95% CI 63–73%) and 20% (4–33%) reduction in hazard of death, respectively, versus in those where these were unchanged.
High excess mortality was confirmed among younger patients with SMI in Sichuan, China. Our findings on the relationships between community management and socioeconomic factors and mortality can inform community-based mental healthcare policies to reduce excess mortality among patients with SMI.
The objective of the current study was to identify factors across the socio-ecological model (SEM) associated with adolescents’ sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake.
This cross-sectional study surveyed adolescents using previously validated instruments. Analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA tests and stepwise nonlinear regression models (i.e., two-part models) adjusted to be cluster robust. Guided by SEM, a four-step model was used to identify factors associated with adolescent SSB intake – step 1: demographics (i.e., age, gender), step 2: intrapersonal (i.e., theory of planned behaviour (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, behavioural intentions), health literacy, media literacy, public health literacy), step 3: interpersonal (i.e., caregiver’s SSB behaviours, caregiver’s SSB rules) and step 4: environmental (i.e., home SSB availability) level variables.
Eight middle schools across four rural southwest Virginia counties in Appalachia.
Seven hundred ninety seventh grade students (55·4 % female, 44·6 % males, mean age 12 (sd 0·5) years).
Mean SSB intake was 36·3 (sd 42·5) fluid ounces or 433·4 (sd 493·6) calories per day. In the final step of the regression model, seven variables significantly explained adolescent’s SSB consumption: behavioural intention (P < 0·05), affective attitude (P < 0·05), perceived behavioural control (P < 0·05), health literacy (P < 0·001), caregiver behaviours (P < 0·05), caregiver rules (P < 0·05) and home availability (P < 0·001).
SSB intake among adolescents in rural Appalachia was nearly three times above national mean. Home environment was the strongest predictor of adolescent SSB intake, followed by caregiver rules, caregiver behaviours and health literacy. Future interventions targeting these factors may provide the greatest opportunity to improve adolescent SSB intake.
An inflammation-induced imbalance in the kynurenine pathway (KP) has been reported in major depressive disorder but the utility of these metabolites as predictive or therapeutic biomarkers of behavioral activation (BA) therapy is unknown.
Serum samples were provided by 56 depressed individuals before BA therapy and 29 of these individuals also provided samples after 10 weeks of therapy to measure cytokines and KP metabolites. The PROMIS Depression Scale (PROMIS-D) and the Sheehan Disability Scale were administered weekly and the Beck depression inventory was administered pre- and post-therapy. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effect, general linear, and logistic regression models. The primary outcome for the biomarker analyses was the ratio of kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid (KynA/QA).
BA decreased depression and disability scores (p's < 0.001, Cohen's d's > 0.5). KynA/QA significantly increased at post-therapy relative to baseline (p < 0.001, d = 2.2), an effect driven by a decrease in QA post-therapy (p < 0.001, uncorrected, d = 3.39). A trend towards a decrease in the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan (KYN/TRP) was also observed (p = 0.054, uncorrected, d = 0.78). Neither the change in KynA/QA, nor baseline KynA/QA were associated with response to BA therapy.
The current findings together with previous research show that electronconvulsive therapy, escitalopram, and ketamine decrease concentrations of the neurotoxin, QA, raise the possibility that a common therapeutic mechanism underlies diverse forms of anti-depressant treatment but future controlled studies are needed to test this hypothesis.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This chapter considers ways that perceived time – both at the level of seconds and lifetimes – may influence adult development. Research suggests that age-related impairments in divided attention contribute to older adults’ underestimation of short-term duration judgments. A separate literature suggests that perceived constraints on future time lead to the prioritization of emotionally meaningful goals. We consider ways that these two research streams may inform one another. Findings about duration judgments may help to explain age-related time acceleration that affects perceptions of the future. Findings about motivational changes associated with perceived constraints on time may influence attention in ways that reduce accuracy of duration judgments. We urge joint consideration of these literatures in hypothesis generation about developmental trajectories of cognitive processing, motivation, and emotional well-being.
Posttraumtic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by traumatic experience, exhibiting three major clinical symptoms: re-experience, avoidance and numbing, and hyperarousal (APA,DSM-IV, 1994). It is thought to involve a dysregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity in response to fear. The mPFC plays an important role in regulating the stress response (RJ. Ursano et al, Textbook of Disaster Psychiatry). Studies have reported that the calcium signal in the brain cell of PTSD rats is disordered (BING XIAO et al, 2009). Calreticulin, helping to deal with misfolded proteins during the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response as molecular chaperone, is a calcium binding protein.In this study,detection of the expression level of calreticulin in mPFC of rats with PTSD provides experimental evidence reveled part pathogenesis of PTSD and Single prolonged stress (SPS) method as an established animal model for PTSD was used. A total of 75 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups: SPS1d,SPS4d,SPS7d,SPS14d, and the control group. The calreticulin expression in mPFC was examined using immunohistochemistry, western boltting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry showed calreticulin widely distributed throughout the mPFC, mainly in the cytoplasm, appeared as buffy particle. Protein level of calreticulin of SPS group gradually increased and peaked at SPS 7d. The mRNA expression of calreticulin was upward trend and peaked at SPS4d. ERS induced by SPS stimulation made misfolded protein accumulation increase, which made calreticulin separate from calcium and increase to deal with misfolded protein. Then intracellular free calcium r increased, which exacerbated ERS and induced cell apoptosis. Expression change of calreticulin caused cell apoptosis, which may be closely related to changes of emotion,cognition of PTSD rats.
Patients with severe mental disorders in low-resource settings have limited access to services, resulting in overwhelming caregiving burden for families. In extreme cases, this has led to the long-term restraining of patients in their homes. China underwent a nationwide initiative to unlock patients and provide continued treatment. This study aims to quantify household economic burden in families after unlocking and treatment, and to identify factors associated with increased burden due to schizophrenia.
A total of 264 subjects were enrolled from three geographically diverse provinces in 2012. Subjects were patients with schizophrenia who were previously put under restraints and had participated in the ‘unlocking and treatment’ intervention. The primary outcome was the current household economic burden, obtained from past year financial information collected through on-site interview. Patient disease characteristics, treatment, outcomes and family caregiving burden were collected as well. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to construct risk factor models for indirect economic burden.
After participating in the intervention, 85% of patients continued to receive mental health services, 70% used medication as prescribed and 80% were never relocked. Family members reported significantly decreased caregiving burden after receiving the intervention. Mean direct and indirect household economic burdens were CNY963 (US$31.7) and CNY11 724 (US$1670) per year, respectively, while family total income was on average CNY12 108 (US$1913) per year. Greater disease severity and poorer patient psychosocial function at time of study were found to be independent factors related to increased indirect burden.
The ‘unlocking and treatment’ intervention has improved the lives of patients and families. Indirect burden due to disease is still a major economic issue that needs to be addressed, potentially through improving treatment and patient functioning. Our findings contribute to the unravelling and eventual elimination of chronic restraining of mentally ill patients in low-resource settings.
Dietary indices are widely used in diet quality measurement, and the index-based dietary patterns are related to gastric cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship between different kinds of index-based dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk, we systematically searched four English-language databases and four Chinese-language databases. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between gastric cancer incidence and different types of index-based dietary patterns. The OR and hazard ratios (HR) of gastric cancer incidence were calculated by regression models in case–control studies and prospective cohort studies, respectively. The studies were pooled in the random effects model to calculate the summarised risk estimate of the highest quantile interval of dietary indices, taking the lowest as the referent. The dietary indices included different versions of Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and dietary inflammatory index (DII), healthy eating index, Chinese Food Pagoda score and food index score. The meta-analysis was carried out for studies on MDS and DII. The combined OR of gastric cancer for the highest MDS v. the referent was 0·42 (95 % CI 0·2, 0·86), and the combined HR was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·17). The combined OR for DII was 2·11 (95 % CI 1·41, 3·15). Higher Mediterranean dietary pattern consumption might reduce gastric cancer risk, while higher inflammatory diet pattern consumption might increase gastric cancer risk.
Numerous fabrication protocols are known to yield transition metal oxides with structures related to layered double hydroxides, but the effect of fabrication protocol on the uniformity of mixed-metal compositions remain largely unexplored. We have analysed the apparent solubility limits and the structural implications of iron ions in nickel hydroxide lattices for materials prepared by four different fabrication protocols. Opposing shifts in the (100) and (001) reflection in powder X-ray diffraction results revealed a contraction of the nickel lattice upon successful incorporation of iron, with Ni-M distances exhibiting an apparently linear decrease with respect to iron content. This feature revealed the amount of iron incorporated into nickel-based materials to be dependent on fabrication protocol, varying from apparently negligible concentrations to over fifty atomic percent. The dependency of structure on fabrication protocols provides a handle to improve fundamental understanding of catalytically relevant coordination environments.
A nonlinear station-keeping control method for a multi-vectored propeller airship under unknown wind field with thrust saturation is developed, which is composed of three modules: nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC), disturbance observer (DOB) and tracking differentiator (TD). The nonlinear kinematics and dynamics models are introduced, and the wind effect is considered by the wind-induced aerodynamic force. Based on both models, an explicit NMPC is designed. Then a nonlinear DOB is introduced to estimate the wind disturbance. A TD, showing the relationship between the maximum propulsion force and the maximum flight acceleration, is proposed to handle the thrusts’ amplitude saturation. Stability analysis shows that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable. Simulations for a multi-vectored propeller airship are conducted to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.
(i) To determine the current state of online grocery shopping, including individuals’ motivations for shopping for groceries online and types of foods purchased; and (ii) to identify the potential promise and pitfalls that online grocery shopping may offer in relation to food and beverage purchases.
PubMed, ABI/INFORM and Google Scholar were searched to identify published research.
To be included, studies must have been published between 2007 and 2017 in English, based in the USA or Europe (including the UK), and focused on: (i) motivations for online grocery shopping; (ii) the cognitive/psychosocial domain; and (iii) the community or neighbourhood food environment domain.
Our search yielded twenty-four relevant papers.
Findings indicate that online grocery shopping can be a double-edged sword. While it has the potential to increase healthy choices via reduced unhealthy impulse purchases, nutrition labelling strategies, and as a method to overcome food access limitations among individuals with limited access to a brick-and-mortar store, it also has the potential to increase unhealthy choices due to reasons such as consumers’ hesitance to purchase fresh produce online.
Additional research is needed to determine the most effective ways to positively engage customers to use online grocery shopping to make healthier choices.
Because obesity is associated with many co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the second-meal effect of a commercial prebiotic, inulin-type fructans, and the effects of the prebiotic on faecal microbiota, metabolites and bile acids (BA). Nine overweight beagles were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design to test a non-prebiotic control (cellulose) against a low (equivalent to 0·5 % diet) and high dose (equivalent to 1·0 % diet) of prebiotic over 14-d treatments. All dogs were fed the same diet twice daily, with treatments provided orally via gelatin capsules before meals. On days 13 or 14 of each period, fresh faecal samples were collected, dogs were fed at 08.00 hours and then challenged with 1 g/kg body weight of maltodextrin in place of the 16.00 hours meal. Repeated blood samples were analysed for glucose and hormone concentrations to determine postprandial incremental AUC (IAUC) data. Baseline glucose, insulin and active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were similar between all groups (P>0·10). Glucose and insulin IAUC after glucose challenge appeared lower following the high dose, but did not reach statistical relevance. Prebiotic intervention resulted in an increase in relative abundance of some Firmicutes and a decrease in the relative abundance of some Proteobacteria. Individual and total faecal SCFA were significantly increased (P<0·05) following prebiotic supplementation. Total concentration of excreted faecal BA tended to increase in dogs fed the prebiotic (P=0·06). Our results indicate that higher doses of inulin-type prebiotics may serve as modulators of gut microbiota, metabolites and BA pool in overweight dogs.