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Dogs harbor numerous zoonotic pathogens, many of which are controlled through vaccination programs. The delivery of these programs can be difficult where resources are limited. We developed a dynamic model to estimate vaccination coverage and cost-per-dog vaccinated. The model considers the main factors that affect vaccination programs: dog demographics, effectiveness of strategies, efficacy of interventions and cost. The model was evaluated on data from 18 vaccination programs representing eight countries. Sensitivity analysis was performed for dog confinement and vaccination strategies. The average difference between modelled vaccination coverage and field data was 3.8% (2.3%–5.3%). Central point vaccination was the most cost-effective vaccination strategy when >88% of the dog population was confined. More active methods of vaccination, such as door-to-door or capture-vaccinate-release, achieved higher vaccination coverage in free-roaming dog populations but were more costly. This open-access tool can aid in planning more efficient vaccination campaigns in countries with limited resources.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders including constipation affect up to 14 % of the world's population. Treatment is difficult and challenging resulting in a need for alternative safe and effective therapies. The present study investigated whether daily consumption of three gold-fleshed kiwifruit could alleviate constipation and improve gastrointestinal discomfort in mildly constipated individuals with and without pain. A total of thirty-two participants were enrolled in a 16-week randomised, single-blind, crossover study. Participants received either three ‘Zesy002’ kiwifruit or 14·75 g Metamucil® (5 g dietary fibre/d (a positive control)) for 4 weeks each with a 4-week washout between treatments. A 2-week washout period was included at the beginning and end of the study. Daily bowel habit diaries were kept throughout the study. The primary outcome measure was differences in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM). Secondary outcome measures were bowel movement frequency and stool form as well as digestive symptoms and comfort. The number of CSBM per week was significantly greater during daily consumption of three kiwifruit compared with the baseline (6·3 v. 3·3; P < 0·05) and the Metamucil® treatment (6·3 v. 4·5; P < 0·05). Stool consistency was also improved, with kiwifruit producing softer stools and less straining (P < 0·05). Gastrointestinal discomfort was also improved compared with baseline for abdominal pain, constipation and indigestion (P < 0·05) during the kiwifruit intervention and constipation during the Metamucil® intervention (P < 0·05). This randomised controlled trial demonstrates that daily consumption of three gold-fleshed kiwifruit is associated with a significant increase of two CSBM per week and reduction in gastrointestinal discomfort in mildly constipated adults.
In this report, we summarize over 30 years of analytical x-ray safety history at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and describe the safety procedures used in the operation of analytical x-ray equipment in the laboratories managed by the LLNL Chemistry and Materials Science Department (C&MSD). The present safety control system, which was developed by users of the equipment, has proven effective in keeping incidents at LLNL to a rate consistent with the national average.
In this article, we show that mechanically-induced phase transformations can be readily achieved in two Pu-alloy systems. We have observed mechanically-induced phase transformations in both Ti-stabilized β-Pu and Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, In both of these alloys, the parent phase has been largely transformed to α-Pu, and the cause of these transformations was mechanical strain introduced by the metallographic sample preparation. For the Ga alloys, x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were taken at about 1.5-μm steps down to the undisturbed material in order to develop depth profiles of the surface damage. The total depth of the disturbed material in these alloys is estimated to be about 7.6μm, but this depth was not measured for the Ti alloys. The proportions of α-Pu and δ-Pu in the Ga alloys have been estimated using (a) a new quantitative phase analysis program (SPECQUAN) that uses multiple peaks of each phase in order to minimize the effects of preferred orientation and (b) an older manual technique (i.e., hand calculations). The results from these techniques are compared. SPECQUAN was developed to use the Specplot data file structure directly, thus reducing our data processing. The program is written in Fortran 77 and employs an external intensity ratio quantification procedure to obtain its results. XRD calibration has been done independently by means of accurate density measurements on a reference Ga alloy.
The International Centre for Diffraction Data (1CDD), formally the Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), recently published a compilation of metal and alloy indexes of powder diffraction and structural data. This compilation is designed to make the identification and characterization of metallic and related materials easier and far more accurate. Systematic searches for chemical analogs and greater use of partial chemical knowledge are now possible.
In this article, we demonstrate that the combination of elemental and phase mapping is a very powerful tool for characterizing sputtered, binary plutonium alloys.
A specially designed energy-dispersive spectrometer equipped with an automated x-y translational stage was used to measure elemental differences in several disks sputter-coated with binary plutonium alloys. Automated diffractometer scans were obtained from selected areas on the disks by using specially designed sample holders. The elemental differences were then correlated with the phases present and the observed corrosion resistance. The elemental spectra and diffractometer scans were analyzed using a modified version of the SPECPLOT program. This program enables the user to analyze both energy-dispersive elemental data and diffractometer data using a single program.
This study evaluated in a rigorous 18-month randomized controlled trial the efficacy of an enhanced vocational intervention for helping individuals with a recent first schizophrenia episode to return to and remain in competitive work or regular schooling.
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) was adapted to meet the goals of individuals whose goals might involve either employment or schooling. IPS was combined with a Workplace Fundamentals Module (WFM) for an enhanced, outpatient, vocational intervention. Random assignment to the enhanced integrated rehabilitation program (N = 46) was contrasted with equally intensive clinical treatment at UCLA, including social skills training groups, and conventional vocational rehabilitation by state agencies (N = 23). All patients were provided case management and psychiatric services by the same clinical team and received oral atypical antipsychotic medication.
The IPS–WFM combination led to 83% of patients participating in competitive employment or school in the first 6 months of intensive treatment, compared with 41% in the comparison group (p < 0.005). During the subsequent year, IPS–WFM continued to yield higher rates of schooling/employment (92% v. 60%, p < 0.03). Cumulative number of weeks of schooling and/or employment was also substantially greater with the IPS–WFM intervention (45 v. 26 weeks, p < 0.004).
The results clearly support the efficacy of an enhanced intervention focused on recovery of participation in normative work and school settings in the initial phase of schizophrenia, suggesting potential for prevention of disability.
Objectives: The high rate of cannabis (CAN) use in emerging adults is concerning given prior research suggesting neurocognitive deficits associated with CAN use in youth. Regular CAN use downregulates endocannabinoid activity, while aerobic exercise upregulates cannabinoid receptor 1 activity and releases endocannabinoids. Here we investigate the influence of regular CAN use on neuropsychological performance, and whether aerobic fitness moderates these effects. Methods: Seventy-nine young adults (37 CAN users) aged 16–26 participated. Groups were balanced for aerobic fitness level. Exclusion criteria included: left-handedness, past-year independent Axis-I disorders, major medical/neurologic disorders, prenatal issues, or prenatal alcohol/illicit drug exposure. After 3 weeks of abstinence, participants completed a neuropsychological battery and a maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2 max). Multiple regressions tested whether past-year CAN use, VO2 max, and CAN*VO2 max interaction predicted neuropsychological performance, controlling for past-year alcohol use, cotinine, gender, and depression symptoms. Results: Increased CAN use was associated with decreased performance on working memory and psychomotor tasks. High aerobic fitness level was related to better performance on visual memory, verbal fluency, and sequencing ability. CAN*VO2 max predicted performance of psychomotor speed, visual memory, and sequencing ability. Conclusions: Following monitored abstinence, increased CAN use was associated with poorer performance in working memory and psychomotor speed. Higher aerobic fitness level moderated the impact of CAN on visual memory, executive function and psychomotor speed, as more aerobically fit CAN users demonstrated better performance relative to low-fit users. Therefore, aerobic fitness may present an affordable and efficacious method to improve cognitive functioning in CAN users. (JINS, 2019, 25, 134–145)
We identified a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium avium in an outpatient bronchoscopy clinic following an increase in clinic procedure volume. We terminated the pseudo-outbreak by increasing the frequency of automated endoscope reprocessors (AER) filter changes from quarterly to monthly. Filter changing schedules should depend on use rather than fixed time intervals.
What are the consequences of nationalist unrest? This paper utilizes two original datasets, which cover 377 city-level anti-Japanese protests during the 2012 Senkaku/Diaoyu Island crisis and the careers of municipal leaders, to analyse the downstream effects of nationalist unrest at the subnational level. We find both political and economic consequences of China's 2012 protest demonstrations against Japan. Specifically, top Party leaders in cities that saw relatively spontaneous, early protests were less likely to be promoted to higher office, a finding that is consistent with the widely held but rarely tested expectation that social instability is punished in the Chinese Communist Party's cadre evaluation system. We also see a negative effect of nationalist protest on foreign direct investment (FDI) growth at the city level. However, the lower promotion rates associated with relatively spontaneous protests appear to arise through political rather than economic channels. By taking into account data on social unrest in addition to economic performance, these results add to existing evidence that systematic evaluation of leaders’ performance plays a major role in the Chinese political system. These findings also illuminate the dilemma that local leaders face in managing popular nationalism amid shifting national priorities.
Objectives: Past research suggests that youth with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) present with verbal fluency deficits. However, most studies have focused on sex chromosome trisomies. Far less is known about sex chromosome tetrasomies and pentasomies. Thus, the current research sought to characterize verbal fluency performance among youth with sex chromosome trisomies, tetrasomies, and pentasomies by contrasting how performance varies as a function of extra X number and X versus Y status. Methods: Participants included 79 youth with SCAs and 42 typically developing controls matched on age, maternal education, and racial/ethnic background. Participants completed the phonemic and semantic conditions of a verbal fluency task and an abbreviated intelligence test. Results: Both supernumerary X and Y chromosomes were associated with verbal fluency deficits relative to controls. These impairments increased as a function of the number of extra X chromosomes, and the pattern of impairments on phonemic and semantic fluency differed for those with a supernumerary X versus Y chromosome. Whereas one supernumerary Y chromosome was associated with similar performance across fluency conditions, one supernumerary X chromosome was associated with relatively stronger semantic than phonemic fluency skills. Conclusions: Verbal fluency skills in youth with supernumerary X and Y chromosomes are impaired relative to controls. However, the degree of impairment varies across groups and task condition. Further research into the cognitive underpinnings of verbal fluency in youth with SCAs may provide insights into their verbal fluency deficits and help guide future treatments. (JINS, 2018, 24, 917–927)
There is a growing body of evidence that the non-thermal extra-galactic sources in the Universe- -the Radio Galaxies, Seyfert nuclei, QSO's, BL Lacertae objects and the X-ray galaxies- -are all powered ultimately by collapsed objects at the centers of galaxies. Moreover, there is no reason at this stage to doubt that the central energy source is probably the same in all cases. At this point, five years before the Space Telescope is to be launched, the fundamental problem is to identify the nature of the central engine and then to understand in detail the variety of observed phenomena.
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Using effect sizes, clinically meaningful moderator effects were found only within the CGH. Greater combat exposure was associated with decreased CGH fractional anisotropy (overall structural integrity) and increased CGH radial diffusivity (perpendicular water diffusivity) among individuals with more severe childhood maltreatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the moderating effect of childhood maltreatment on the relationship between combat exposure and CGH structural integrity. These differences in CGH structural integrity could have maladaptive implications for emotion and memory, as well as provide a potential mechanism by which childhood maltreatment induces vulnerability to later life trauma exposure.
In adolescent sheep, high nutrient intakes to promote rapid maternal growth during pregnancy results in a major restriction in placental growth which leads to a significant reduction in lamb birthweight relative to moderate intake adolescents of equivalent gynaecological age (Wallace et al 1996). Placental hormones play a crucial role in the development, differentiation and function of the mammary gland and we have previously reported that maternal concentrations of progesterone, growth hormone and pregnancy-specific protein B are significantly reduced in high intake dams with growth restricted placentae (Wallace et al 1997 a,b). For newborn lambs, the ingestion of adequate quantities of nutrient dense colostrum is essential to provide fuel for heat production and to ensure absorption of maternal antibodies to give immunological protection against infection. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of nutritionally-mediated placental growth restriction on colostrum yield, nutrient composition and immunoglobulin content.
Cover crop–based, organic rotational no-till (CCORNT) corn and soybean systems have been developed in the mid-Atlantic region to build soil health, increase management flexibility, and reduce labor. In this system, a roller-crimped cover crop mulch provides within-season weed suppression in no-till corn and soybean. A cropping system experiment was conducted in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware to test the cumulative effects of a multitactic weed management approach in a 3-yr hairy vetch/triticale–corn–cereal rye–soybean–winter wheat CCORNT rotation. Treatments included delayed planting dates (early, intermediate, late) and supplemental weed control using high-residue (HR) cultivation in no-till corn and soybean phases. In the no-till corn phase, HR cultivation decreased weed biomass relative to the uncultivated control by 58%, 23%, and 62% in Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, respectively. In the no-till soybean phase, HR cultivation decreased weed biomass relative to the uncultivated treatment planted in narrow rows (19 to 38 cm) by 20%, 41%, and 78% in Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, respectively. Common ragweed was more dominant in soybean (39% of total biomass) compared with corn (10% of total biomass), whereas giant foxtail and smooth pigweed were more dominant in corn, comprising 46% and 22% of total biomass, respectively. Common ragweed became less abundant as corn and soybean planting dates were delayed, whereas giant foxtail and smooth pigweed increased as a percentage of total biomass as planting dates were delayed. At the Pennsylvania location, inconsistent termination of cover crops with the roller-crimper resulted in volunteer cover crops in other phases of the rotation. Our results indicate that HR cultivation is necessary to achieve adequate weed control in CCORNT systems. Integration of winter grain or perennial forages into CCORNT systems will also be an important management tactic for truncating weed seedbank population increases.
Development of a radio reference frame of very high accuracy has become necessary in order to obtain the required accuracy in spacecraft navigation for current and future planetary missions. The antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network are being utilized on a regular basis to obtain the positions of over 100 compact extragalactic radio sources distributed over the sky down to a declination of −45 degrees with uncertainties of less than 0.005 arcseconds.
A sensitive search for intrinsically faint Seyfert nuclei in the 500 brightest northern galaxies is being conducted with the Hale 5.08 m telescope. The primary aim is to extend the luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to lower luminosities. Thus far, we have detected Hα emission having full-width near zero-intensity (FWZI) ≳ 4000 km s−1 in a significant fraction (≳10%) of nearby galaxies. Moreover, the narrow emission lines in a given nucleus often have markedly different widths, as shown in detail for M81. Those associated with high critical densities are generally the broadest, indicating that a very wide range of densities is present in the narrow-line region. The relative intensities of the lines can readily be explained with models in which clouds of gas having ne ≈ 102 to 107 cm−3 are photoionized by nonstellar radiation such as that produced by QSOs and luminous Seyfert 1 galaxies.