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Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
Neurocognitive deficits and schizotypal features are elevated in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. However, the co-aggregation of these indicators is not well known. Some studies have found that neurocognitive deficits and schizotypy increase in severity with the density of family history of schizophrenia. Therefore, we studied in affected families a) whether the status of Presumed Carrier (PC) of the genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with higher levels of neurocognitive deficits and schizotypic features and b) the relationship between schizotypy and neurocognition.
From an ongoing Catalan Multicentric Family Study on Schizophrenia, 70 families were included in this analysis. 90 non-psychotic parents of schizophrenic patients (age 50.7/8.8; education 10.3/4.04; IQ 96.2/14.6) were defined as PC if they had at least one first (apart of offspring) or second degree relative with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FIGS), resulting in 17 PC and 73 non-PC. Schizotypic features were assessed with the SCID-II and the SPQ-B. Working memory (WM), executive functioning, sustained attention, verbal fluency and logical memory were also assessed.
PC differed significantly from NPC on verbal working memory, even after controlling for IQ (d=0.8). They did not differ on any of the self-reported or interview measures of schizotypy. The negative schizotypic dimension was associated with more WCST-perseverative errors, and low scores in spatial-WM, verbal fluency and immediate/delayed logical memory.
A large association was found between verbal-WM and the familial background of schizophrenia. Only negative features were associated with some neurocognitive functions, supporting the view of multiple independent dimensions or a pleiotropic expression of risk.
The extent and causes of covariance between schizotypy and neurocognition is not well-known yet. Certain models conceive their association as necessary for the construct validity of schizotypy, whereas others view them as independently contributing to a multivariate endophenotype. It is also not clear whether those at increased genetic risk for schizophrenia present stronger covariance, reflecting an extra latent source of variance. We analysed their association within relatives of schizophrenia patients defined with FIGS as Presumed Carriers -PC- of the genetic risk for schizophrenia, Presumed Non Carriers -PNC-, and controls.
108 healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients and 72 healthy controls were assessed with the SCID-II and completed the SPQ-B. Neurocognitive assessment: Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS), WCST, CPT-IP, verbal fluency, and logical memory.
Partial correlations adjusting for age and education showed that within PC-relatives self-rated negative schizotypy was associated with lower LNS and CPT-IP; positive schizotypy was associated with CPT-IP, and disorganization with memory and failure to maintain set. Schizoid symptoms had an association with failure to maintain set (though not perseveration) and paranoid symptoms with memory. Within PNC-relatives, negative schizotypy was associated with lower verbal fluency and more perseverative errors. Within controls, positive schizotypy was associated with perseverative errors and both positive and negative dimensions were associated with verbal fluency.
Results indicate a wider array of covariation between relatives with presumed higher genetic liability. A consistent pattern of associations between psychotic-like dimensions and the brain functions tapped by neurocognitive tests did not emerge across groups.
Barbacena is a Brazilian city with 140,000 inhabitants, which was known as the “city of madmen” because of the excessive number of patients in psychiatric hospitals. In 2000 it began a deinstitutionalization process, and the patients were transferred to assisted residential services.
Describe the process of deinstitutionalization and social rehabilitation of psychiatric patients.
The following characteristics were studied: sex, age, medication use, psychiatric diagnosis and the development of social skills.
In each therapeutic residence (RT) lives eight patients, supervised by upper and mid-level professionals. Since the implementation of RTs about 400 patients leave the psychiatric hospitals. Most had mental retardation (51.0%), followed by schizophrenia (31.0%). More than half (58.5%) were men. The age ranged from 29 to 97 years, with a average of 64.8 ± 12.4. A decrease in the average dose of neuroleptics was seen after deinstitutionalization. Direct observation of patients in the RT, and the reporting of caregivers has shown that patients have developed wide range of social performance, such as dating, started at professional courses, attending exercise classes, travelling and learn how to use money.
In despite of difficulties in the psychiatric reform process, the community-based treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation approach are the principal models of psychiatric care presently, and the residential services play an important role in this process. The authors emphasize the importance of community support, professional staff and rehabilitation programs as a condition for good outcomes.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The use of valid and practical screening scales might ease the burden for greatly needed universal testing for mental health, substance use and dual disorders, but do they work well with all populations? Do they miss correct identification of certain groups?
To understand discrepancies in diagnostic prediction using the AC-OK screen in conjunction with other standardized assessment scales.
Two hundred and twenty-six Latino participants were recruited from primary care and community clinics in Madrid, Barcelona and Boston and assessed with standardized mental health and substance abuse measures including the AC-OK screen and with a Computerized adaptive test for mental health (CAT-MH). A measure of frequency of discrepancies and an adjusted and unadjusted comparison of results and demographic characteristics or respondents were made for mental health, substance abuse or for discrepancies in both categories.
35.4% of cases were discrepant in mental health (AC-OK-Mental Health vs. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 or PTSD Checklist) and 14.2% in substance abuse (AC-OK-substance abuse vs. drug abuse screening test or Alcohol use disorders identification test). When CAT-MH scale was incorporated, discrepant results were found in 24.3% and 14.2%, respectively. No association was found between substance abuse discrepancies and patient demographics. In logit regressions being from Barcelona, of younger age and male were significant predictors of discrepancies.
Discrepancies were observed in the diagnostic prediction, with differences detected for site and sociodemographic characteristics of participants suggesting the importance of testing screeners for site and population differences. Evidence for the misclassification of young males is discussed. Caution is warranted in the implementation of screeners for at risk populations.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Misophonia refers to a condition in which there is a strong aversion to certain sounds, in response to it the person reports unpleasant emotional experiences and autonomic arousal.
To present the case of misophonia carrier and discuss diagnostic features.
Case report and literature review.
Female, 32 years old, married, two children. In anamnesis reported obsessional symptoms (Check doors and windows, concerned with order and symmetry of objects; read all that lies ahead, pull the hand two or three times on mobile) since adolescence. Also reported triggering situations of anger: intolerance to some noises and sounds, like chewing third, mobile keyboard, click the “mouse” computer, printer and rub hands. In the presence of these noises, she tries to move away, and already tried to attack physically relatives and insulting co-workers. She was treated with escitalopram and re-evaluation after thirty days, reported partial relief misophonia and reduction of obsessional symptoms.
The condition was first described in the early 2000s by two audiologists, and has become the focus of interest in the field of psychiatry. Some reports suggest that misophonic symptoms may be part of other conditions such as Tourette's syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Specifically, the characteristics shared between misophonia and OCD, as the relief of discomfort associated with avoidance behaviour suggest that the condition is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, which seems to happen with the case described above.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease. The parasite molecules involved in vector interaction have been little investigated. Metallopeptidases and gp63 molecules have been implicated in parasite adhesion of several trypanosomatids to the insect midgut. Although gp63 homologues are highly expanded in the T. cruzi genome, and are implicated in parasite–mammalian host interaction, its role in the insect vector has never been explored. Here, we showed that divalent metal chelators or anti-Tcgp63-I antibodies impaired T. cruzi adhesion to Rhodnius prolixus midgut. Parasites isolated after insect colonization presented a drastic enhancement in the expression of Tcgp63-I. These data highlight, for the first time, that Tcgp63-I and Zn-dependent enzymes contribute to the interaction of T. cruzi with the insect vector.
We examine whether early acquisition of a second language (L2) leads to native-like neural processing of phonemic contrasts that are absent in the L1. Four groups (adult and child monolingual speakers of English; adult and child early bilingual speakers of English and Spanish, exposed to both languages before 5 years of age) participated in a study comparing the English /ɪ/ - /ε/ contrast. Neural measures of automatic change detection (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and attention (Processing Negativity, PN and Late Negativity, LN) were measured by varying whether participants tracked the stimulus stream or not. We observed no effect of bilingualism on the MMN, but adult bilinguals differed significantly from adult monolinguals on neural indices of attention. The child bilinguals were indistinguishable from their monolingual peers. This suggest that learning a L2 before five years of age leads to native-like phoneme discrimination, but bilinguals develop increased attentional sensitivity to speech sounds.
The degradation of organic molecules in an aqueous medium using heterogeneous photocatalysis depends on the chemical composition and concentration of the organic compound, the crystalline and morphological nature of the photocatalyst, the pH of the dye dilution, and the reaction temperature. Since photocatalytic degradation is a process that occurs on the surface of the catalytic material, it is desirable to induce maximum adsorption of the organic compound. One strategy to achieve this is to functionalize the surface of the catalyst to retain the molecule of interest. In this work, we studied the interaction of acid orange 7 (AO7) with commercial TiO2-anatase powder catalyst, and with a catalyst synthesized in house using titanium tetrachloride and ethanolamine (TiO2-et). Our results indicate that there is no adsorption of the AO7 dye on the TiO2-et particles. The infrared spectrum of the TiO2-et particles is presented.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
Intensive farming may involve the use of diets, environments or management practices that impose physiological and psychological stressors on the animals. In particular, early weaning is nowadays a common practice to increase the productive yield of pig farms. Still, it is considered one of the most critical periods in swine production, where piglet performance can be seriously affected and where they are predisposed to the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Pig producers nowadays face the challenge to overcome this situation in a context of increasing restrictions on the use of antibiotics in animal production. Great efforts are being made to find strategies to help piglets overcome the challenges of early weaning. Among them, a nutritional strategy that has received increasing attention in the last few years is the use of probiotics. It has been extensively documented that probiotics can reduce digestive disorders and improve productive parameters. Still, research in probiotics so far has also been characterized as being inconsistent and with low reproducibility from farm to farm. Scientific literature related to probiotic effects against gastrointestinal pathogens will be critically examined in this review. Moreover, the actual practical approach when using probiotics in these animals, and potential strategies to increase consistency in probiotic effects, will be discussed. Thus, considering the boost in probiotic research observed in recent years, this paper aims to provide a much-needed, in-depth review of the scientific data published to-date. Furthermore, it aims to be useful to swine nutritionists, researchers and the additive industry to critically consider their approach when developing or using probiotic strategies in weaning piglets.
The present study evaluated the effects of maternal dyslipidaemia on blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory physiology and biochemical parameters in male offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed either a control (CTL) or a dyslipidaemic (DLP) diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, both CTL and DLP offspring received standard diet. On the 30th and 90th day of life, blood samples were collected for metabolic analyses. Direct measurements of BP, respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and ventilation (VE) under baseline condition, as well as during hypercapnia (7 % CO2) and hypoxia (KCN, 0·04 %), were recorded from awake 90-d-old male offspring. DLP dams exhibited raised serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) (4·0-fold), TAG (2·0-fold), VLDL+LDL (7·7-fold) and reduced HDL-cholesterol (2·4-fold), insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis at the end of lactation. At 30 d of age, the DLP offspring showed an increase in the serum levels of TC (P<0·05) and VLDL+LDL (P<0·05) in comparison with CTL offspring. At 90 d of age, DLP offspring exhibited higher mean arterial pressure (MAP, approximately 34 %). In the spectral analysis, the DLP group showed augmented low-frequency (LF) power and LF:high-frequency (HF) ratio when compared with CTL offspring. In addition, the DLP animals showed a larger delta variation in arterial pressure after administration of the ganglionic blocker (P=0·0003). We also found that cardiorespiratory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia was augmented in DLP offspring. In conclusion, the present data show that maternal dyslipidaemia alters cardiorespiratory physiology and may be a predisposing factor for hypertension at adulthood.
The species Phytomonas serpens is known to express some molecules displaying similarity to those described in trypanosomatids pathogenic to humans, such as peptidases from Trypanosoma cruzi (cruzipain) and Leishmania spp. (gp63). In this work, a population of P. serpens resistant to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 at 70 µm (MDLR population) was selected by culturing promastigotes in increasing concentrations of the drug. The only relevant ultrastructural difference between wild-type (WT) and MDLR promastigotes was the presence of microvesicles within the flagellar pocket of the latter. MDLR population also showed an increased reactivity to anti-cruzipain antibody as well as a higher papain-like proteolytic activity, while the expression of calpain-like molecules cross-reactive to anti-Dm-calpain (from Drosophila melanogaster) antibody and calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase activity were decreased. Gp63-like molecules also presented a diminished expression in MDLR population, which is probably correlated to the reduction in the parasite adhesion to the salivary glands of the insect vector Oncopeltus fasciatus. A lower accumulation of Rhodamine 123 was detected in MDLR cells when compared with the WT population, a phenotype that was reversed when MDLR cells were treated with cyclosporin A and verapamil. Collectively, our results may help in the understanding of the roles of calpain inhibitors in trypanosomatids.
There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders.
The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53.7% women; mean age: 51.0, s.d. 8.8 years), randomly selected from the general population, who underwent comprehensive somatic and psychiatric evaluations at baseline and follow-up (mean follow-up duration = 5.5 years, s.d. 0.6). Current and remitted mood disorders including bipolar and major depressive disorders (MDD) and its subtypes (atypical, melancholic, combined atypical and melancholic, and unspecified) were based on semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed in fasting blood samples. Associations were tested by multiple linear and logistic regression models.
Current combined MDD [β = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03–0.55] and current atypical MDD (β = 0.32, 95% CI 0.10–0.55) at baseline were associated with increased levels of hsCRP at follow-up. There was little evidence for inflammation markers at baseline predicting mood disorders at follow-up.
The prospective unidirectional association between current MDD subtype with atypical features and hsCRP levels at follow-up suggests that inflammation may be a consequence of this condition. The role of inflammation, particularly hsCRP that is critically involved in cardiovascular diseases, warrants further study. Future research that examines potential influences of medications on inflammatory processes is indicated.
Outstanding problems concerning mass-loss from evolved stars include initial wind acceleration and what determines the clumping scale. Reconstructing physical conditions from maser data has been highly uncertain due to the exponential amplification. ALMA and e-MERLIN now provide image cubes for five H2O maser transitions around VY CMa, at spatial resolutions comparable to the size of individual clouds or better, covering excitation states from 204 to 2360 K. We use the model of Gray et al. 2016, to constrain variations of number density and temperature on scales of a few au, an order of magnitude finer than is possible with thermal lines, comparable to individual cloud sizes or locally almost homogeneous regions. We compare results with the models of Decin et al. 2006 and Matsuura et al. 2014 for the circumstellar envelope of VY CMa; in later work this will be extended to other maser sources.
Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites.
The overall sample consisted of 27 001 participants (37.5% males, n = 4251 drawn from the general population). The mean age was 22.12 years (s.d. = 6.28, range 16–55 years). The SPQ was used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Multilevel CFA (ML-CFA) were used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the SPQ scores.
At the SPQ item level, the nine factor and second-order factor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit. At the SPQ subscale level, three- and four-factor models displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than other CFA models. ML-CFA showed that the intraclass correlation coefficients values were lower than 0.106. The three-factor model showed adequate goodness of fit indices in multilevel analysis. The ordinal α coefficients were high, ranging from 0.73 to 0.94 across individual samples, and from 0.84 to 0.91 for the combined sample.
The results are consistent with the conceptual notion that schizotypal personality is a multifaceted construct and support the validity and utility of SPQ in cross-cultural research. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our results for diagnostic systems, psychosis models and cross-national mental health strategies.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.