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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Recently, the telecommunication market experiences an explosion in the subscribers of emergent high-debit services which require bandwidth that exceeds the one provided by actual copper based access networks . To cope with these demands and keep competitive, great efforts have been done to develop access networks based on optical technology, such as passive all-optical networks due to their intrinsic low cost . Sol-gel processing is suitable for the development of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) materials for the production of functional integrated optic (IO) devices in a cost effective way. Urea cross-linked OIH show acceptable transparency, mechanical flexibility and thermal stability [3-6]. The control over the refractive index is achieved by zirconium (IV) n-propoxide (ZPO) doping stabilized with methacrylic acid (MA) [3-5]. The combination in a single material of urea cross-linked OIH and ZPO allowed the preparation of UV written low losses planar waveguides  and low rugosity diffraction grating [4,5]. It has been demonstrated that MA acts not only as ZPO stabilizer but impacts directly on the photopolimerization properties as it contains a photopolymerizable group making the OIH easily UV patterned without photoinitiator . Moreover, it also impacts on the OHIs local structure as it forms a complex with ZPO, that originate ordered clusters dispersed within the OIH host [4,5]. Besides the potential of this OIH as IO components, the hybrid hosts are room-temperature efficient white light emitters lacking metal activator ions, presenting quantum yields as higher as 20 % . In this work, a series of OIH, so called di-ureasils, formed of a siliceous skeleton to which oligopolyether chains of different lengths are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges and modified by ZPO and MA will be prepared and characterized by X-ray and small angle X-ray diffractions, Raman, infrared, atomic force and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The use of the proposed OIH in the development of IO functionalities such as optical filters will be evaluated based on waveguide numerical simulation methods (beam propagation method). Waveguides will be written and characterized using the OIH aforementioned. The recording of a Bragg grating in the waveguides allow the implementation of a wavelength discrimination device with applications on optical filtering. The relevant properties of the devices, such as spectral rejection and insertion losses will be characterized.  S-J Park et al. Journal of Lightwave Tech. 22, 2004.  D.J. Shin et al., Journal of Lightwave Tech. 23, 2005.  C. Molina et al., J. Mater. Chem. 15, 3937, 2005.  R.A. Sá Ferreira et al., Proceedings of the International Conference on Telecomunications, 2006.  P.S. André et al. Proceedings ICTON, 1, We.C1.6, 223, 2006.  a) L.D. Carlos et al., Adv. Func. Mater. 11, 111, 2001; b) J. Chem. Phys. B. 108, 14924, 2004. Siemens SA and FCT (POCTI/CTM/59075/2004) is gratefully acknowledged.
In our current moment, authoritarian figures loom large. One of them is Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte. He seems to embody two notions of sovereignty. One is related to law, the other to norms: on the one hand, the power of taking exception to the former, deciding who will live and who will die; on the other hand, the freedom from the limits of the latter by way of dissipation, irresponsibility, and excess. This article explores the double sources of his power with reference to the works of Michel Foucault and Achille Mbembe. While most of Foucault's work has focused on Europe, Mbembe has written about postcolonial conditions in ways that make critical use of Foucault. Drawing from their writings, this article situates Duterte as a “sovereign trickster” who seeks to dominate death while monopolizing laughter. Finally, this article speculates on the comparative usefulness of this figure of the sovereign trickster with regard to President Donald Trump, whose form of tricksterism derives, the author argues, from the tradition of blackface minstrelsy.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
It seems now important to consider bulk velocity gradients inside jets (Blandford, 1993; Biretta et al, 1995) and recent results from tomography technique suggest the presence of different components in radio sources (Rudnick, this symposium). A few jet models take explicitly into account two components with different bulk velocities (Smith, Raine, 1985; Baker et al, 1988; Sol et al, 1989; Achatz et al, 1990). A fast beam comes from the vicinity of the black hole while a slower collimated wind is emitted by the accretion disk. When stable, the two components can survive along the jet. If a fast instability develops at a distance Dc from core, the beam is destroyed over some relaxation length. Its energy and momentum are transmitted to the wind. Apparent change in the flow regime such as slowing down, decollimation, local bending or discontinuity in surface brightness is the expected observational signature of such critical zones on radio maps. The exact appearance of the zone depends on the parameters of the two flows and on their interaction regime.
BL Lac objects often show a quite distorted radio morphology. Almost 75% of the BL Lacs for which the information is available show an apparent misalignment angle ΔPA between the VLBI jet and the large scale radio structure larger than 45 degrees. This can be explained by strong enhancement of slight bending due to projection effects, especially if BL Lacs are the most highly beamed sources. However we recently performed a statistical analysis of misalignment angle histograms for 155 extragalactic radio sources of different types and found that the intrinsic distortion is significantly more important in BL Lacs than in quasars and even CSS sources. Indeed the best fits of the δPA histograms by a simple bend model correspond to γɸ = 123° for BL Lacs, 37° for quasars and 36° for CSS sources, where ɸ and γ are the jet typical intrinsic bend and Lorentz factor within a given class of sources (Appl et al, 1995). If, as currently thought, jets in BL Lacs have smaller Lorentz factors than in quasars, high intrinsic bending and misalignment appear to be the rule in BL Lac sources.
The structural evolution of the BL Lac object OJ287 has been studied with milliarcsecond resolution by using 8.4 GHz geodetic VLBI data from the Crustal Dynamics Program. Such data provide valuable maps which are useful to track superluminal components on short time scales (Charlot 1992). We have mapped and model-fitted OJ287 at ten epochs separated by intervals of a few months between 1985.4 and 1988.1 (Fig. 1a). The structure of OJ287 over this time span consists of two components, one of which is the source core, while the other one is identified with the knot K3, ejected during the 1983–1984 optical outburst. Our models indicate that the knot K3 moves along a non-radial path, with evidence for an apparent deceleration by mid-1986 and a reacceleration afterwards (Fig. 1b). We explain this peculiar motion by a projection effect due to a helical morphology of the jet. Our proposed helical model, estimated by considering the sky positions of K3 together with those of the earlier knots K1 and K2 (Roberts et al. 1987, Gabuzda et al. 1989), corresponds to a helix with a pitch angle of 20° on a narrow cone of half opening angle 3.4°, and central axis inclined at 17° relative to the line of sight. Ejection of VLBI components appears to occur simultaneously with optical outbursts and at mid-time between them. This finding is consistent with the supermassive binary black hole model previously proposed to explain those periodical outbursts (Sillanpää et al. 1988). Comparison of our helical fit with hydrodynamical models (Hardee et al. 1994) provides estimates of the radius (R ≃ 0.015 pc at a distance of 5 pc from the core), opening angle (ψ ≃ 0.1°), and Mach number (M ≃ 60) of the jet, and shows that the orbital 9.0 yr period of the binary black hole system is adequate to drive the helical perturbation if the jet propagates in a hot ambient medium with an external sound speed of 5000 km/s.
We present results of observations of two BL Lac objects, 0735+178 and 0723–008, with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz. These objects have a distorted morphology, characterized by a large misalignment between their inner and outer radio structures. Our EVN observations at intermediate resolution reveal the presence of a highly curved jet in 0735+178, providing evidence for continuity of the radio emission from milliarcsecond to arcsecond scales. No indication of connecting radio structure is found in the case of 0723–008.
This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT–PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50–83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.
This work presents a series of three-dimensional computational methods with the objective of analyzing and quantifying some important structural characteristics in a collection of low-density polyolefin-based foams. First, the solid phase tortuosity, local thickness, and surface curvature, have been determined over the solid phase of the foam. These parameters were used to quantify the presence of wrinkles located at the cell walls of the foams under study. In addition, a novel segmentation technique has been applied to the continuous solid phase. This novel method allows performing a separate analysis of the constituting elements of this phase, that is, cell struts and cell walls. The methodology is based on a solid classification algorithm and evaluates the local topological dissimilarities existing between these elements. Thanks to this method it was possible to perform a separate analysis of curvature, local thickness, and corrugation ratio in the solid constituents that reveals additional differences that were not detected in the first analysis of the continuous structure. The methods developed in this work are applicable to other types of porous materials in fields such as geoscience or biomedicine.
This paper examines the role of language in nationalist attempts at decolonization. In the case of the Philippines, American colonial education imposed English as the sole medium of instruction. Native students were required to suppress their vernacular languages so that the classroom became the site for a kind of linguistic war, or better yet, the war of translation. Nationalists have routinely denounced the continued use of English as a morbid symptom of colonial mentality. Yet, such a view was deeply tied to the colonial notion of the sheer instrumentality of language and the notion that translation was a means for the speaker to dominate language as such. However, other practices of translation existed based not on domination but play seen in the classroom and the streets. Popular practices of translation undercut colonial and nationalist ideas about language, providing us with an alternative understanding of translation in democratizing expression in a postcolonial context.
In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.
Galactic winds and outflows are an ubiquitous phenomenon in galaxies with active star formation and/or active nuclei. They constitute the main mechanism for redistributing dust and metals on large scales and are therefore a key ingredient to understand the life cycle of galaxies. Among galaxies, ULIRGs are of particular interest in this context, as they host intense starbursts and are likely to be the dominant star formers at z > 1. These objects have been shown to host important winds, but it is not yet known what is the frequency of galactic winds and their properties in galaxies with lower star formation rates (SFR). We are studying galactic winds in a sample of 21 galaxies with different SFRs (including ULIRGs) from observations with the INTEGRAL fiber spectrograph on the 4.2m WHT. In order to be able to address the complex multi–phase nature of the wind phenomenon, we have used the Na I D doublet absorption lines to trace cold gas, and a few emission lines (Hα, [N ii] and [S ii]) to trace the warmer ionized gas of the wind. The distribution and kinematics of both components in these objects is then analysed. Preliminary results show strong spatial correlation between regions with high non–circular velocities, areas with high star formation activity and regions with two different components in the emission lines. This set of data will help us to characterise the distribution and kinematics of the winds and their relation with the host galaxy type.
One of the greatest challenges for reproductive cryobiologists today is to develop an efficient cryopreservation method for human and domestic animal oocytes. The objective of the present study was to optimize a low toxicity solution called VM3 to vitrify porcine oocytes using an open pulled straw (OPS) device and to evaluate the effects on viability, chromosomal organization and cortical granules distribution. Two experiments were conducted in this study. Firstly, we determined the minimum concentration of cryoprotectant present in the VM3 solution required (7.6 M) for vitrification using an OPS device. The appearance of opacity was observed when using a cooling solution at –196°C; no observable opacity was noted as vitrification. In addition, the ultrastructure of oocytes in VM3 or VM3 optimized solution was examined using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The minimum total cryoprotectant concentration present in VM3 solution necessary for apparent vitrification was 5.6 M when combined with use of an OPS device. Use of both vitrification solutions showed a characteristic plasticized surface. In the second experiment, the relative cytotoxicity of vitrification solutions (VM3 and VM3 optimized) was studied. Oocyte viability, chromosomal organization and the cortical granules distribution were assessed by fluorescent stain. After warming, oocyte survival rate was similar to that of fresh oocytes. The vitrification process significantly reduced correct chromosomal organization and cortical granules distribution rates compared with the fresh oocytes group. However, correct chromosomal organization and cortical granules distribution rates did not differ among oocytes placed in different vitrification solutions. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the VM3 solution can be optimized and that reduction in concentration to 5.6 M enabled vitrification of oocytes with an OPS device, however use of the VM3 optimised solution had no beneficial effect on vitrification of porcine oocytes.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
Carbonized buffer layers were formed on Si (100) nominally oriented substrates with propane diluted in palladium purified hydrogen in a cold wall vertical reactor. Subsequent SiC layers were grown using silane and propane at atmospheric pressure. The growth temperature was ranging from 1150°C to 1350°C. The layers obtained were characterized by LT photoluminescence, IR reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman on cleaved edges, AFM imaging, and optical microscopy. Drastic influence on the layer surface morphology was evidenced depending on the transition step between the carbonization and the SiC epitaxial growth. As a result, we have developed a carbonization process leading to very high quality 3CSiC films grown at 1250°C.
Chemical deintercalation in Fe-substituted lithium nickelate and its effects on the thermal stability and electrochemical behaviour are studied. A sample with Fe:Ni ratio of 1:9 was used as the starting material. Chemical deintercalation of the ceramic product was achieved by acid treatment with 0.6 M aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions at room temperature. The atomic Fe:Ni ratio remained unaffected while the Li:(Fe+Ni) ratio decreased significantly down to ca. 0.5 after acid treatment. Infrared spectroscopy was used to discard a proton exchange side reaction. The initial open circuit voltage (OCV) of non-aqueous electrolyte lithium cells using the chemically deintercalated solids was ca. 3.7 V, while 3.0 V were obtained with the pristine oxide. Heat treating the deintercalated solids lead to oxygen evolution at 230°C with the formation of spinel rock-salt structure solids at 600°C. The improved thermal stability as compared with iron-free lithium nickelate is an interesting factor for battery safety.
A series of ceramic oxides were prepared by adding alumina to the superconductor YBaCuO. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS and electrical measurements. Partial drops in electrical resistance (R ≠ 0) indicate the presence of superconducting phases trapped in ceramic masses. Additionally, the systematic diminution of Tc could indicate a partial substitution of Cu by Al.
Thin films of YBa2Cu3O7/Ag multilayered structures have been grown by dc magnetron sputtering on MgO(lOO) substrates. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and resistivity measurements. Multilayers with YBCO layer thickness above 40nm show superconducting transitions and zero resistances higher than 70K. These layers show c-axis growth perpendicular to the substrate and the silver layers have preferential (111) orientation normal to the substrate too. Finally STM images reveal screw dislocation spirals at the YBCO layer surface even when the superconducting layer is grown on silver (111) underlayers.