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Regeneration from seed affects species assembly in plant communities, and temperature is the most important environmental factor controlling the germination process. Thermal dependence of seed germination is thus associated with species occurrence in an ecosystem. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of temperature on seed germination of ten tree species from the western Brazilian Amazon. Seeds were collected in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and set to germinate under constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C in germination chambers. We calculated germination capacity (G%), germination rate (GR50, reciprocal of germination time), and thermal parameters, such as cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirements. Most species had a large range of temperatures showing G% ≥80%, with optimal temperature varying from 20 to 40°C. Base temperature ranged from 6 to 12°C and ceiling temperatures were mainly >40°C. Astronium lecointei and Parkia nitida showed high germination capacity under temperatures of 35–40°C, while germination of Theobroma cacao dropped from 100% to zero under temperatures between 37 and 40°C. The climax species Cedrela fissilis had the slowest germination time (10 days) and highest thermal time requirement, while seeds of Enterolobium schomburgkii (a late-successional species) germinated within the first day of the experiment. Rapid recruitment of Amazon species could be favoured with treefall disturbance, which increases temperatures in the understory, but sharp limits might be found in the supra-optimal range of temperatures. Such patterns might indicate different regeneration strategies in the tropical rainforest, providing important information regarding seed germination among Amazon species.
Attractive colloidal dispersions, suspensions of fine particles which aggregate and frequently form a space-spanning elastic gel are ubiquitous materials in society with a wide range of applications. The colloidal networks in these materials can exist in a mode of free settling when the network weight exceeds its compressive yield stress. An equivalent state occurs when the network is held fixed in place and used as a filter through which the suspending fluid is pumped. In either scenario, hydrodynamic instabilities leading to loss of network integrity occur. Experimental observations have shown that the loss of integrity is associated with the formation of eroded channels, so-called streamers, through which the fluid flows rapidly. However, the dynamics of growth and subsequent mechanism of collapse remain poorly understood. Here, a phenomenological model is presented that describes dynamically the radial growth of a streamer due to erosion of the network by rapid fluid back flow. The model exhibits a finite-time blowup – the onset of catastrophic failure in the gel – due to activated breaking of the inter-colloid bonds. Brownian dynamics simulations of hydrodynamically interacting and settling colloids in dilute gels are employed to examine the initiation and propagation of this instability, which are in good agreement with the theory. The model dynamics is also shown to accurately replicate measurements of streamer growth in two different experimental systems. The predictive capabilities and future improvements of the model are discussed and a stability-state diagram is presented providing insight into engineering strategies for avoiding settling instabilities in networks meant to have long shelf lives.
The objectives of the current study were to investigate the dynamics of body calcium (Ca) and to estimate the net Ca maintenance requirements (NCam) of Saanen goats, using 45Ca as a radiotracer. Eighteen castrated male Saanen goats (25 ± 2.3 kg body weight (BW)) received a basal diet (ground ear maize, ground maize and vitamin–mineral premix). The treatments consisted of adding limestone to the basal diet to provide Ca content of 0.6, 1.7 and 3.0 g/kg dry matter (DM). The experiment lasted 45 days (i.e. 36 d of adaptation and 9 days of measurements). On day 38, 0.5 ml of 7.4 MBq 45Ca solution was administrated before feeding. From days 39 to 45, samples of faeces, blood and urine were collected, and Ca concentration determined. The Ca intake, Ca in faeces, Ca in urine, faecal endogenous Ca and true absorbed Ca increased linearly as Ca content in the diets increased, while retained Ca increased at a decreasing rate. Dry matter intake decreased at an increasing rate with increased Ca content in the diets. In contrast, Ca content in the diets did not affect biological availability of Ca, or Ca in plasma. The true biological availability of Ca from limestone in Saanen goats was 0.72. The daily NCam was 11.6 (±1.3) mg/kg BW. The current results might help to understand Ca dynamics in goats and enhance the formulation of balanced diets to best meet Ca requirements of Saanen goats.
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. is widely used as a high-protein supplementary food for ruminants in many parts of the tropics. Native to Central America and Mexico, it has become widely naturalized elsewhere but the introduced populations are mostly of unknown origin and uncertain quality. Studies of the genetic resources from the native range, under a research programme at OFI, have shown great variation between populations in yield (Dunsdon and Simons, 1996). The objective of the research described here was to investigate whether there is also important genetic variation in fodder quality, to inform decisions on future distribution of ‘superior’ germplasm of G. sepium under the OFI programme.
Myostatin acts as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mice and cattle deficient for myostatin have a dramatic increase in skeletal muscle mass (McPherron et al., 1997, Arnold et al., 2001). Natural mutations in the myostatin gene have been seen in several cattle breeds and in one mouse line and in cattle the associated phenotype is referred to as ‘ Double-muscling’ (DM). Although the direct DM effect seems to be positive in meat producing livestock with increased muscle and decreased fat there are reports of negative side effects in reproductive and other traits in cattle, with an indication of substantial interaction with the genetic background (Wiener et al., 2002). Thus it may be possible to select for the beneficial traits, while minimising the impact of the negative effects. Although negative side effects are not fully understood, breeding companies in the meat-producing sector are devoting considerable effort to high-throughput screening for mutations in this gene, hoping to find variants associated with increased muscularity. It is important that the impacts of such mutations on a wide range of production and welfare traits are fully explored before it becomes a focus of selection in meat producing livestock. The objectives of the work presented here were to utilise marker assisted introgression of a myostatin-deficiency producing partially recessive allele (Compact, MstnCmpt-dl1Abc) to estimate its effects on traits of growth and fitness on the genetic background of an extreme high growth line, as a model of a highly developed livestock breed. Fitness effects as assessed by the segregation ratio are reported here.
The field of composites materials has evolved from the use of traditional fillers (e.g. carbon and glass fibers) to nanoscale fillers that add unique and often multifunctional properties to the neat polymer. Because nanoparticles have extremely high surface to volume ratios, that alter the mobility of polymer chains near their interfaces, even a small addition of nanoparticles. These components have the potential to drastically transform the properties of the host polymers. While the last decade has observed several advances in the field of nanocomposites, some recent reviews have made it clear that definitive structure-property relationships are insufficient in the literature. The influence of inorganic TiO2 nanoparticles on the dynamic mechanical properties and microstructure of copolymer based on Butyl acrylate - Methyl methacrylate - Acrylic Acid has been investigated. The mechanical relaxations of the reinforced copolymer/TiO2 composites were studied under tension mode. Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to acrylic copolymer produced a decrease in the glass transition temperature. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the local motions associated with the alpha-transition (40°C) are enhanced as the frequency of oscillation increases, i.e. the tan d maximum increases at higher frequencies. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles reduces significantly the strength of the alpha-transition. Thus, the cooperative molecular motions involving segments of the molecular chains associated with the alpha-transition were compromised by the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles resulting in a decrement of the storage modulus.
Based on the nature of the links and interactions existing at the hybrid interface, hybrid materials can be broadly classified in two main designations: a) Hybrid compounds Class I, that include all systems with electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding or Van der Waals interactions and b) Hybrid compounds Class II, showing that the inorganic and organic components are linked through strong covalent or ionic-covalent bonds. The physico–chemical properties of nanostructured copolymer acrylates based on butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA) has been investigated employing un-modified SiO2 (Class I) and modified SiO2 particles (Class II) using 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) as compatibilizing agent. The synthesis was carried out using seeded batch emulsion polymerization system. Metastable nanostructured emulsions containing 1 wt% nanoparticles were obtained. Films casted from the in-situ nanostructured latex exhibited excellent optical transparency suggesting good nanoparticles dispersion. However, the mechanical properties showed by SiO2-MPS nanocomposite, are better than the Class I hybrid compounds. Therefore, SiO2-MPS surface treatment prior to polymerization enhances the physical properties of copolymer BA-MMA-AA film. The mass loss derivative traces for the polyacrylic nanocomposites and the neat polymer obtained by thermogravimetric analysis showed that the onset temperature for thermal decomposition was shifted towards a higher temperature than the neat polyacrylic, indicating the enhancement of thermal stability of the un-modified SiO2 nanocomposite. However, there is a decrease of 40°C in the decomposition temperature for the modified polyacrylic nanocomposite. The results obtained so far have shown that weak Van der Waals and H-bonding interactions may be sufficient to enable improvement of the physical properties of the acrylate nanocomposites.
To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on children’s Hb, linear growth and development, compared with supplementation with micronutrient powder (MNP).
The study was a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial, where participants received either LNS or MNP for daily consumption during 6 months. Supplements were delivered by staff at government-run health centres. Hb, anthropometric, motor development, language development and problem-solving indicators were measured by trained research assistants when children were 12 months of age.
The study was conducted in five rural districts in the Province of Ambo in the Department of Huánuco, Peru.
We enrolled 6-month-old children (n 422) at nineteen health centres.
Children who received LNS had a higher mean Hb concentration and lower odds of anaemia than those who received MNP. No significant differences in height-for-age, weight-for-height or weight-for-age Z-score, or stunting and underweight prevalence, were observed. Provision of LNS was associated with a higher pre-verbal language (gestures) score, but such effect lost significance after adjustment for covariates. Children in the LNS group had higher problem-solving task scores and increased odds of achieving this cognitive task than children in the MNP group. No significant differences were observed on receptive language or gross motor development.
LNS between 6 and 12 months of age increased Hb concentration, reduced anaemia and improved cognitive development in children, but showed no effects on anthropometric indicators, motor or language development.
Methiozolin is an isoxazoline herbicide being investigated for selective POST annual bluegrass control in managed turfgrass. Research was conducted to evaluate methiozolin efficacy for controlling two annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to photosystem II (PSII) or enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)-inhibiting herbicides (i.e., glyphosate), as well as phenotypes with multiple resistance to microtubule and EPSPS or PSII and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. All resistant phenotypes were established in glasshouse culture along with a known herbicide-susceptible control and treated with methiozolin at 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, or 8000 g ai ha−1. Methiozolin effectively controlled annual bluegrass with target-site resistance to inhibitors of EPSPS, PSII, as well as multiple resistance to EPSPS and microtubule inhibitors. Methiozolin rates required to reduce aboveground biomass of these resistant phenotypes 50% (GR50 values) were not significantly different from the susceptible control, ranging from 159 to 421 g ha−1. A phenotype with target-site resistance to PSII and ALS inhibitors was less sensitive to methiozolin (GR50=862 g ha−1) than a susceptible phenotype (GR50=423 g ha−1). Our findings indicate that methiozolin is an effective option for controlling select annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to several herbicides.
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.
We present a database of 11 interplanetary shocks associated to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by STEREO and Wind missions between 2006 and 2011 that show evidence of Type II radio burst. For all events, we calculated the principal characteristics of the shock driver, the intensity and geometrical configuration of the in-situ shock and checked for the existence of in-situ type II radio burst. We made a comparative analysis of two CME events (on 18 August 2010 and 4 June 2011), which are apparently associated to two or more magnetic structures which interact in space (i.e. CMEs, SIRs, CIRs). These events show varied shock configurations and intensities. We found evidence of in-situ type II radio bursts in one of the events studied, suggesting that the geometry of the shock (quasi-perpendicularity) is also critical for the generation and/or detection of radio emission in-situ.
A huge amount of data has been acquired with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), large-format facility cameras, and since 2016 with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI). These data are processed in standardized procedures with the aim of providing science-ready data for the solar physics community. For this purpose, we have developed a user-friendly data reduction pipeline called “sTools” based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and licensed under creative commons license. The pipeline delivers reduced and image-reconstructed data with a minimum of user interaction. Furthermore, quick-look data are generated as well as a webpage with an overview of the observations and their statistics. All the processed data are stored online at the GREGOR GFPI and HiFI data archive of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP). The principles of the pipeline are presented together with selected high-resolution spectral scans and images processed with sTools.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
The study of the small magnetic structures of the solar photosphere is of great relevance because of their association with concentrations of magnetic field and their possible contribution to the variations of the Total Solar Irradiance. These structures are known to appear close to active regions and ubiquitously in the quiet Sun areas. Numerous studies about their distribution across all over the solar surface have been done with high-resolution instrumentation. However, since the observations have always been carried out from the ecliptic plane, their distribution near the polar regions is not well known. Future missions, like Solar Orbiter, will certainly provide valuable information on these yet unexplored regions. In this work, and in preparation for that moment, we select favorable periods for the observation of the polar regions of the Sun, and study the fraction of covered surface by small magnetic structures and its variation with the solar activity.
We present a study of the M6.6 flare that occurred on 13 February 2011 in AR 11158. The flare was accompanied by a CME and EUV waves. We use multiwavelength observations from the ground: H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA), and space: Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both onboard the Solar and Dynamic Observatory (SDO).
The chromosphere is a complex region that acts as an intermediary between the magnetic flux emergence in the photosphere and the magnetic features seen in the corona. Large eruptions in the chromosphere of flares and filaments are often accompanied by ejections of coronal mass off the sun. Several studies have observed fast-moving progressive trains of compact bright points (called Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings or SCBs) streaming away from chromospheric flares that also produce a coronal mass ejection (CME). In this work, we review studies of SCBs and search for commonalties between them. We place these findings into a larger context with contemporary chromospheric and coronal observations. SCBs are fleeting indicators of the solar atmospheric environment as it existed before their associated eruption. Since they appear at the very outset of a flare eruption, SCBs are good early indication of a CME measured in the chromosphere.
We have investigated the case of a coronal mass ejection that was eroded by the fast wind of a coronal hole in the interplanetary medium. When a solar ejection takes place close to a coronal hole, the flux rope magnetic topology of the coronal mass ejection (CME) may become misshapen at 1 AU as a result of the interaction. Detailed analysis of this event reveals erosion of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) magnetic field. In this communication, we study the photospheric magnetic roots of the coronal hole and the coronal mass ejection area with HMI/SDO magnetograms to define their magnetic characteristics.
Magnetic instability is a key consideration for filament eruptions and subsequent CMEs. In this contribution we are considering different magnetic conditions for active and non-active regions, such as coronal hole regions and quiet sun, and also active regions of a simple magnetic configuration. The aim is to assess magnetic instability through potential and non-potential field modelling and 3D evaluation of the magnetic decay index. Some eruptive examples from solar cycle 24 using HMI/SDO data are presented, complemented with observations of AIA/SDO.